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Altering Transplantation Time to Avoid Periods of High Temperature Can Efficiently Reduce Bacterial Wilt Disease Incidence with Tomato.

Wei Z, Huang JF, Hu J, Gu YA, Yang CL, Mei XL, Shen QR, Xu YC, Friman VP - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: We found that changing the transplantation times reduced the mean disease incidence from 33.9% (LS) and 54.7% (EA) to 11.1% (ES) and 7.1% (LA), respectively.Reduction in disease incidence correlated with the reduction in R.Preponing and postponing traditional tomato transplantation times to cooler periods could thus offer simple but effective way to control R. solanacearum disease outbreaks.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab for Organic Solid Waste Utilization, National Engineering Research Center for Organic-based Fertilizers, Nanjing Agricultural University, Weigang 1, Nanjing, PR China.

ABSTRACT
Tomato bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum bacterium is a severe problem in Southern China, where relatively high environmental temperatures commonly prevails during the crop seasons. Previous research has indicated that bacterial wilt disease incidence generally increases during the warm months of summer leading to reduced tomato yield. Moreover, the efficacy of bio-organic fertilizers (BOFs)-organic compost fortified with pathogen-suppressive bacteria-is often lost during the periods of high environmental temperatures. Here we studied if the disease incidence could be reduced and the BOF performance enhanced by simply preponing and postponing the traditional seedling transplantation times to avoid tomato plant development during periods of high environmental temperature. To this end, a continuous, two-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of BOF in two traditional (late-spring [LS] and early-autumn [EA]) and two alternative (early-spring [ES] and late-autumn [LA]) crop seasons. We found that changing the transplantation times reduced the mean disease incidence from 33.9% (LS) and 54.7% (EA) to 11.1% (ES) and 7.1% (LA), respectively. Reduction in disease incidence correlated with the reduction in R. Solanacearum pathogen density in the tomato plant rhizosphere and stem base. Applying BOF during alternative transplantation treatments improved biocontrol efficiency from 43.4% (LS) and 3.1% (EA) to 67.4% (ES) and 64.8% (LA). On average, the mean maximum air temperatures were positively correlated with the disease incidence, and negatively correlated with the BOF biocontrol efficacy over the crop seasons. Crucially, even though preponing the transplantation time reduced the tomato yield in general, it was still economically more profitable compared to LS season due to reduced crop losses and relatively higher market prices. Preponing and postponing traditional tomato transplantation times to cooler periods could thus offer simple but effective way to control R. solanacearum disease outbreaks.

No MeSH data available.


Changes in the mean maximum temperature (panel A) for every 10-day time period after transplantation (T10) and in the mean maximum temperature (panel B) during the entire crop season (Tcs) for the early-spring (ES, black circle), late-spring (LS, white circle), early-autumn (EA, white triangle) and late-autumn (LA, black triangle) crop seasons transplantation treatments in 2011 and 2012.Bars show standard error of mean (SEM) in all panels. Dashed lines in all panels indicate T10 or Tcs equal to 25°C Different letters in lowercase on the top of the bar represent significance (Duncan’s multiple range test, P < 0.05).
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pone.0139313.g001: Changes in the mean maximum temperature (panel A) for every 10-day time period after transplantation (T10) and in the mean maximum temperature (panel B) during the entire crop season (Tcs) for the early-spring (ES, black circle), late-spring (LS, white circle), early-autumn (EA, white triangle) and late-autumn (LA, black triangle) crop seasons transplantation treatments in 2011 and 2012.Bars show standard error of mean (SEM) in all panels. Dashed lines in all panels indicate T10 or Tcs equal to 25°C Different letters in lowercase on the top of the bar represent significance (Duncan’s multiple range test, P < 0.05).

Mentions: The air temperature dynamics differed significantly between transplantation treatments (Fig 1). In general, T10 increased in ES and LS treatments over time and decreased in EA and LA treatments. The air temperatures were most of the time below 25°C in ES and LA but above 25°C in LS and EA treatments. The Tcs of the ES, LS, EA, and LA in 2011 and 2012 were 12.8~14.9°C, 24.9~26.0°C, 26.7~28.0°C, and 19.9~22.0°C, respectively.


Altering Transplantation Time to Avoid Periods of High Temperature Can Efficiently Reduce Bacterial Wilt Disease Incidence with Tomato.

Wei Z, Huang JF, Hu J, Gu YA, Yang CL, Mei XL, Shen QR, Xu YC, Friman VP - PLoS ONE (2015)

Changes in the mean maximum temperature (panel A) for every 10-day time period after transplantation (T10) and in the mean maximum temperature (panel B) during the entire crop season (Tcs) for the early-spring (ES, black circle), late-spring (LS, white circle), early-autumn (EA, white triangle) and late-autumn (LA, black triangle) crop seasons transplantation treatments in 2011 and 2012.Bars show standard error of mean (SEM) in all panels. Dashed lines in all panels indicate T10 or Tcs equal to 25°C Different letters in lowercase on the top of the bar represent significance (Duncan’s multiple range test, P < 0.05).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4595502&req=5

pone.0139313.g001: Changes in the mean maximum temperature (panel A) for every 10-day time period after transplantation (T10) and in the mean maximum temperature (panel B) during the entire crop season (Tcs) for the early-spring (ES, black circle), late-spring (LS, white circle), early-autumn (EA, white triangle) and late-autumn (LA, black triangle) crop seasons transplantation treatments in 2011 and 2012.Bars show standard error of mean (SEM) in all panels. Dashed lines in all panels indicate T10 or Tcs equal to 25°C Different letters in lowercase on the top of the bar represent significance (Duncan’s multiple range test, P < 0.05).
Mentions: The air temperature dynamics differed significantly between transplantation treatments (Fig 1). In general, T10 increased in ES and LS treatments over time and decreased in EA and LA treatments. The air temperatures were most of the time below 25°C in ES and LA but above 25°C in LS and EA treatments. The Tcs of the ES, LS, EA, and LA in 2011 and 2012 were 12.8~14.9°C, 24.9~26.0°C, 26.7~28.0°C, and 19.9~22.0°C, respectively.

Bottom Line: We found that changing the transplantation times reduced the mean disease incidence from 33.9% (LS) and 54.7% (EA) to 11.1% (ES) and 7.1% (LA), respectively.Reduction in disease incidence correlated with the reduction in R.Preponing and postponing traditional tomato transplantation times to cooler periods could thus offer simple but effective way to control R. solanacearum disease outbreaks.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab for Organic Solid Waste Utilization, National Engineering Research Center for Organic-based Fertilizers, Nanjing Agricultural University, Weigang 1, Nanjing, PR China.

ABSTRACT
Tomato bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum bacterium is a severe problem in Southern China, where relatively high environmental temperatures commonly prevails during the crop seasons. Previous research has indicated that bacterial wilt disease incidence generally increases during the warm months of summer leading to reduced tomato yield. Moreover, the efficacy of bio-organic fertilizers (BOFs)-organic compost fortified with pathogen-suppressive bacteria-is often lost during the periods of high environmental temperatures. Here we studied if the disease incidence could be reduced and the BOF performance enhanced by simply preponing and postponing the traditional seedling transplantation times to avoid tomato plant development during periods of high environmental temperature. To this end, a continuous, two-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of BOF in two traditional (late-spring [LS] and early-autumn [EA]) and two alternative (early-spring [ES] and late-autumn [LA]) crop seasons. We found that changing the transplantation times reduced the mean disease incidence from 33.9% (LS) and 54.7% (EA) to 11.1% (ES) and 7.1% (LA), respectively. Reduction in disease incidence correlated with the reduction in R. Solanacearum pathogen density in the tomato plant rhizosphere and stem base. Applying BOF during alternative transplantation treatments improved biocontrol efficiency from 43.4% (LS) and 3.1% (EA) to 67.4% (ES) and 64.8% (LA). On average, the mean maximum air temperatures were positively correlated with the disease incidence, and negatively correlated with the BOF biocontrol efficacy over the crop seasons. Crucially, even though preponing the transplantation time reduced the tomato yield in general, it was still economically more profitable compared to LS season due to reduced crop losses and relatively higher market prices. Preponing and postponing traditional tomato transplantation times to cooler periods could thus offer simple but effective way to control R. solanacearum disease outbreaks.

No MeSH data available.