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Myelination Is Associated with Processing Speed in Early Childhood: Preliminary Insights.

Chevalier N, Kurth S, Doucette MR, Wiseheart M, Deoni SC, Dean DC, O'Muircheartaigh J, Blackwell KA, Munakata Y, LeBourgeois MK - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Both inspection times and VFM were found to increase with age.Greater VFM in the right and left occipital lobes, the body of the corpus callosum, and the right cerebellum was significantly associated with shorter inspection times, after controlling for age.These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that myelin supports processing speed in early childhood.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Processing speed is an important contributor to working memory performance and fluid intelligence in young children. Myelinated white matter plays a central role in brain messaging, and likely mediates processing speed, but little is known about the relationship between myelination and processing speed in young children. In the present study, processing speed was measured through inspection times, and myelin volume fraction (VFM) was quantified using a multicomponent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach in 2- to 5-years of age. Both inspection times and VFM were found to increase with age. Greater VFM in the right and left occipital lobes, the body of the corpus callosum, and the right cerebellum was significantly associated with shorter inspection times, after controlling for age. A hierarchical regression showed that VFM in the left occipital lobe predicted inspection times over and beyond the effects of age and the VFM in the other brain regions. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that myelin supports processing speed in early childhood.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Significant Pearson correlations between inspection times [ln ms] and myelin volume fraction (VFM) in the left occipital lobe, left and right internal capsules, and right superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), before controlling for age.
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pone.0139897.g004: Significant Pearson correlations between inspection times [ln ms] and myelin volume fraction (VFM) in the left occipital lobe, left and right internal capsules, and right superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), before controlling for age.

Mentions: Inspection times significantly correlated with VFM in the left occipital lobe, left and right internal capsules, and the right superior longitudinal fasciculus, all ps < 0.05 (Table 1 and Fig 4). In addition, similar trends were observed for VFM in the right parietal lobe, right cingulum, and left and right corona radiata, all ps < 0.10. Children showing greater VFM in these regions needed less time to successfully identify the target. After controlling for age, the correlations were significant with myelin in the right and left occipital lobes, right cerebellum, and the splenium of the corpus callosum, all ps < 0.05, with additional trends for the right temporal lobes, left and right internal capsules, and right superior longitudinal fasciculus, ps < 0.10. However, with this small sample size, none of these correlations survived Benjamini and Hochberg [46] False Discovery Rate (FDR) corrections.


Myelination Is Associated with Processing Speed in Early Childhood: Preliminary Insights.

Chevalier N, Kurth S, Doucette MR, Wiseheart M, Deoni SC, Dean DC, O'Muircheartaigh J, Blackwell KA, Munakata Y, LeBourgeois MK - PLoS ONE (2015)

Significant Pearson correlations between inspection times [ln ms] and myelin volume fraction (VFM) in the left occipital lobe, left and right internal capsules, and right superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), before controlling for age.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4595421&req=5

pone.0139897.g004: Significant Pearson correlations between inspection times [ln ms] and myelin volume fraction (VFM) in the left occipital lobe, left and right internal capsules, and right superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), before controlling for age.
Mentions: Inspection times significantly correlated with VFM in the left occipital lobe, left and right internal capsules, and the right superior longitudinal fasciculus, all ps < 0.05 (Table 1 and Fig 4). In addition, similar trends were observed for VFM in the right parietal lobe, right cingulum, and left and right corona radiata, all ps < 0.10. Children showing greater VFM in these regions needed less time to successfully identify the target. After controlling for age, the correlations were significant with myelin in the right and left occipital lobes, right cerebellum, and the splenium of the corpus callosum, all ps < 0.05, with additional trends for the right temporal lobes, left and right internal capsules, and right superior longitudinal fasciculus, ps < 0.10. However, with this small sample size, none of these correlations survived Benjamini and Hochberg [46] False Discovery Rate (FDR) corrections.

Bottom Line: Both inspection times and VFM were found to increase with age.Greater VFM in the right and left occipital lobes, the body of the corpus callosum, and the right cerebellum was significantly associated with shorter inspection times, after controlling for age.These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that myelin supports processing speed in early childhood.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Processing speed is an important contributor to working memory performance and fluid intelligence in young children. Myelinated white matter plays a central role in brain messaging, and likely mediates processing speed, but little is known about the relationship between myelination and processing speed in young children. In the present study, processing speed was measured through inspection times, and myelin volume fraction (VFM) was quantified using a multicomponent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach in 2- to 5-years of age. Both inspection times and VFM were found to increase with age. Greater VFM in the right and left occipital lobes, the body of the corpus callosum, and the right cerebellum was significantly associated with shorter inspection times, after controlling for age. A hierarchical regression showed that VFM in the left occipital lobe predicted inspection times over and beyond the effects of age and the VFM in the other brain regions. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that myelin supports processing speed in early childhood.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus