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Permethrin-Treated Clothing as Protection against the Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti: Extent and Duration of Protection.

DeRaedt Banks S, Orsborne J, Gezan SA, Kaur H, Wilder-Smith A, Lindsey SW, Logan JG - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2015)

Bottom Line: Washing duration and technique had a significant effect, with insecticidal longevity shown to be greater with machine washing (LW50 = 33.4) compared to simulated hand washing (LW50 = 17.6).Ironing significantly reduced permethrin content after 1 week of simulated use, with a 96.7% decrease after 3 months although UV exposure did not reduce permethrin content within clothing significantly after 3 months simulated use.However, our findings also suggest that clothing may provide only short-term protection due to the effect of washing and ironing, highlighting the need for improved fabric treatment techniques.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Disease Control, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Dengue transmission by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, occurs indoors and outdoors during the day. Personal protection of individuals, particularly when outside, is challenging. Here we assess the efficacy and durability of different types of insecticide-treated clothing on laboratory-reared Ae. aegypti.

Methods: Standardised World Health Organisation Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES) cone tests and arm-in-cage assays were used to assess knockdown (KD) and mortality of Ae. aegypti tested against factory-treated fabric, home-dipped fabric and microencapsulated fabric. Based on the testing of these three different treatment types, the most protective was selected for further analysis using arm-in cage assays with the effect of washing, ultra-violet light, and ironing investigated using high pressure liquid chromatography.

Results: Efficacy varied between the microencapsulated and factory dipped fabrics in cone testing. Factory-dipped clothing showed the greatest effect on KD (3 min 38.1%; 1 hour 96.5%) and mortality (97.1%) with no significant difference between this and the factory dipped school uniforms. Factory-dipped clothing was therefore selected for further testing. Factory dipped clothing provided 59% (95% CI = 49.2%- 66.9%) reduction in landing and a 100% reduction in biting in arm-in-cage tests. Washing duration and technique had a significant effect, with insecticidal longevity shown to be greater with machine washing (LW50 = 33.4) compared to simulated hand washing (LW50 = 17.6). Ironing significantly reduced permethrin content after 1 week of simulated use, with a 96.7% decrease after 3 months although UV exposure did not reduce permethrin content within clothing significantly after 3 months simulated use.

Conclusion: Permethrin-treated clothing may be a promising intervention in reducing dengue transmission. However, our findings also suggest that clothing may provide only short-term protection due to the effect of washing and ironing, highlighting the need for improved fabric treatment techniques.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

WHOPES arm-in-cage biting and landing full coverage protection for three different clothing impregnation methods; factory-dipped clothing (FDC), micro-encapsulated (MC), hand dipped clothing (HDC).Protection is measured against the control clothing (FCC) for both biting and landing, Whiskers correspond to 95% confidence intervals.
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pntd.0004109.g002: WHOPES arm-in-cage biting and landing full coverage protection for three different clothing impregnation methods; factory-dipped clothing (FDC), micro-encapsulated (MC), hand dipped clothing (HDC).Protection is measured against the control clothing (FCC) for both biting and landing, Whiskers correspond to 95% confidence intervals.

Mentions: There was a significant difference between mean number of mosquitoes landing between bare arm, control clothing and treated clothing (p = 0.0001). Control and treated clothing did provide significant protection against landing and biting when compared to the bare arm control (p = 0.0001), with the exception of the microencapsulated (MC) untreated control clothing where there was no significant difference between the control clothing and bare arm (p = 0.5776) (Fig 2). Bite protection for MC was significantly lower at 65.5% (95% CI 57.7%-72.4%) compared to HDC 91.5% (95% CI 80.9%- 96.3%), (p<0.0001), (Fig 2). MC gave a bite protection of 79.9% (95% CI 70.41%-86.32%) and this is not significantly different when compared to FDC (p = 0.538). No significant difference was found between HDC and FDC for both landing and biting protection (HDC bite protection: 91.5, 95% CI 80.9%-96.3%); HDC landing protection: 49.9% (95% CI 44.4%- 55.0%); FDC bite protection: 79.9% (95% CI 70.41%- 86.32%); FDC landing protection 40.9% (95% CI 36.4%-45.1%) (p = 0.999), with both FDC and HDC providing the greatest protection against both landing and biting.


Permethrin-Treated Clothing as Protection against the Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti: Extent and Duration of Protection.

DeRaedt Banks S, Orsborne J, Gezan SA, Kaur H, Wilder-Smith A, Lindsey SW, Logan JG - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2015)

WHOPES arm-in-cage biting and landing full coverage protection for three different clothing impregnation methods; factory-dipped clothing (FDC), micro-encapsulated (MC), hand dipped clothing (HDC).Protection is measured against the control clothing (FCC) for both biting and landing, Whiskers correspond to 95% confidence intervals.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4595206&req=5

pntd.0004109.g002: WHOPES arm-in-cage biting and landing full coverage protection for three different clothing impregnation methods; factory-dipped clothing (FDC), micro-encapsulated (MC), hand dipped clothing (HDC).Protection is measured against the control clothing (FCC) for both biting and landing, Whiskers correspond to 95% confidence intervals.
Mentions: There was a significant difference between mean number of mosquitoes landing between bare arm, control clothing and treated clothing (p = 0.0001). Control and treated clothing did provide significant protection against landing and biting when compared to the bare arm control (p = 0.0001), with the exception of the microencapsulated (MC) untreated control clothing where there was no significant difference between the control clothing and bare arm (p = 0.5776) (Fig 2). Bite protection for MC was significantly lower at 65.5% (95% CI 57.7%-72.4%) compared to HDC 91.5% (95% CI 80.9%- 96.3%), (p<0.0001), (Fig 2). MC gave a bite protection of 79.9% (95% CI 70.41%-86.32%) and this is not significantly different when compared to FDC (p = 0.538). No significant difference was found between HDC and FDC for both landing and biting protection (HDC bite protection: 91.5, 95% CI 80.9%-96.3%); HDC landing protection: 49.9% (95% CI 44.4%- 55.0%); FDC bite protection: 79.9% (95% CI 70.41%- 86.32%); FDC landing protection 40.9% (95% CI 36.4%-45.1%) (p = 0.999), with both FDC and HDC providing the greatest protection against both landing and biting.

Bottom Line: Washing duration and technique had a significant effect, with insecticidal longevity shown to be greater with machine washing (LW50 = 33.4) compared to simulated hand washing (LW50 = 17.6).Ironing significantly reduced permethrin content after 1 week of simulated use, with a 96.7% decrease after 3 months although UV exposure did not reduce permethrin content within clothing significantly after 3 months simulated use.However, our findings also suggest that clothing may provide only short-term protection due to the effect of washing and ironing, highlighting the need for improved fabric treatment techniques.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Disease Control, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Dengue transmission by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, occurs indoors and outdoors during the day. Personal protection of individuals, particularly when outside, is challenging. Here we assess the efficacy and durability of different types of insecticide-treated clothing on laboratory-reared Ae. aegypti.

Methods: Standardised World Health Organisation Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES) cone tests and arm-in-cage assays were used to assess knockdown (KD) and mortality of Ae. aegypti tested against factory-treated fabric, home-dipped fabric and microencapsulated fabric. Based on the testing of these three different treatment types, the most protective was selected for further analysis using arm-in cage assays with the effect of washing, ultra-violet light, and ironing investigated using high pressure liquid chromatography.

Results: Efficacy varied between the microencapsulated and factory dipped fabrics in cone testing. Factory-dipped clothing showed the greatest effect on KD (3 min 38.1%; 1 hour 96.5%) and mortality (97.1%) with no significant difference between this and the factory dipped school uniforms. Factory-dipped clothing was therefore selected for further testing. Factory dipped clothing provided 59% (95% CI = 49.2%- 66.9%) reduction in landing and a 100% reduction in biting in arm-in-cage tests. Washing duration and technique had a significant effect, with insecticidal longevity shown to be greater with machine washing (LW50 = 33.4) compared to simulated hand washing (LW50 = 17.6). Ironing significantly reduced permethrin content after 1 week of simulated use, with a 96.7% decrease after 3 months although UV exposure did not reduce permethrin content within clothing significantly after 3 months simulated use.

Conclusion: Permethrin-treated clothing may be a promising intervention in reducing dengue transmission. However, our findings also suggest that clothing may provide only short-term protection due to the effect of washing and ironing, highlighting the need for improved fabric treatment techniques.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus