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Transcriptomic analyses of regenerating adult feathers in chicken.

Ng CS, Chen CK, Fan WL, Wu P, Wu SM, Chen JJ, Lai YT, Mao CT, Lu MY, Chen DR, Lin ZS, Yang KJ, Sha YA, Tu TC, Chen CF, Chuong CM, Li WH - BMC Genomics (2015)

Bottom Line: We compared the gene expression patterns in different types of feathers and different portions of a feather and identified morphotype-specific gene expression patterns.This study laid the ground work for studying the evolutionary origin and diversification of feathers as abundant data were produced for the study of feather morphogenesis.It significantly increased our understanding of the complex molecular and cellular events in feather development processes and provided a foundation for future studies on the development of other skin appendages.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biodiversity Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, 11529, Taiwan. gcsng@gate.sinica.edu.tw.

ABSTRACT

Background: Feathers have diverse forms with hierarchical branching patterns and are an excellent model for studying the development and evolution of morphological traits. The complex structure of feathers allows for various types of morphological changes to occur. The genetic basis of the structural differences between different parts of a feather and between different types of feather is a fundamental question in the study of feather diversity, yet there is only limited relevant information for gene expression during feather development.

Results: We conducted transcriptomic analysis of five zones of feather morphologies from two feather types at different times during their regeneration after plucking. The expression profiles of genes associated with the development of feather structure were examined. We compared the gene expression patterns in different types of feathers and different portions of a feather and identified morphotype-specific gene expression patterns. Many candidate genes were identified for growth control, morphogenesis, or the differentiation of specific structures of different feather types.

Conclusion: This study laid the ground work for studying the evolutionary origin and diversification of feathers as abundant data were produced for the study of feather morphogenesis. It significantly increased our understanding of the complex molecular and cellular events in feather development processes and provided a foundation for future studies on the development of other skin appendages.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Venn diagram showing the genes expressed in each of the five feather tissue types. Among these genes, 9,638 are expressed at all five samples, 10,001 are co-expressed in cEB and cLB, 10,173 are co-expressed in cEB and cEF, 11,283 are co-expressed in cEF and cMF, and 11,132 are co-expressed in cMF and cLF. The GO enrichment analysis showed that the specifically expressed genes of the body feather (cEB and cLB) are not significantly enriched for any known functions, whereas those of the flight feather (cEF, cMF, and cLF) are significantly enriched for several functions indicated in the figure
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Fig3: Venn diagram showing the genes expressed in each of the five feather tissue types. Among these genes, 9,638 are expressed at all five samples, 10,001 are co-expressed in cEB and cLB, 10,173 are co-expressed in cEB and cEF, 11,283 are co-expressed in cEF and cMF, and 11,132 are co-expressed in cMF and cLF. The GO enrichment analysis showed that the specifically expressed genes of the body feather (cEB and cLB) are not significantly enriched for any known functions, whereas those of the flight feather (cEF, cMF, and cLF) are significantly enriched for several functions indicated in the figure

Mentions: An aggregate total of 13,973 expressed genes was expressed (FPKM > 0.1) in at least one of the 15 samples (Additional file 4: Table S3), among which 9,638 genes were expressed in all 15 samples (Fig. 3). In general, the flight feather has more specifically expressed genes than the body feather. The GO enrichment analysis showed that the specifically expressed genes of the body feather are not significantly enriched for any known functions, whereas those of the flight feather are significantly enriched for several functions (Fig. 3). We also found that 49 genes previously identified to have undergone rapid evolution and/or positive selection in avian lineages [29] are expressed in all feather samples (Additional file 5: Table S4). Most of these rapidly evolving and/or positively selected genes are enriched for cytoskeleton and cell adhesion. These proteins may have evolved new functions or properties in feathers and it is worth further investigation.Fig. 3


Transcriptomic analyses of regenerating adult feathers in chicken.

Ng CS, Chen CK, Fan WL, Wu P, Wu SM, Chen JJ, Lai YT, Mao CT, Lu MY, Chen DR, Lin ZS, Yang KJ, Sha YA, Tu TC, Chen CF, Chuong CM, Li WH - BMC Genomics (2015)

Venn diagram showing the genes expressed in each of the five feather tissue types. Among these genes, 9,638 are expressed at all five samples, 10,001 are co-expressed in cEB and cLB, 10,173 are co-expressed in cEB and cEF, 11,283 are co-expressed in cEF and cMF, and 11,132 are co-expressed in cMF and cLF. The GO enrichment analysis showed that the specifically expressed genes of the body feather (cEB and cLB) are not significantly enriched for any known functions, whereas those of the flight feather (cEF, cMF, and cLF) are significantly enriched for several functions indicated in the figure
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4594745&req=5

Fig3: Venn diagram showing the genes expressed in each of the five feather tissue types. Among these genes, 9,638 are expressed at all five samples, 10,001 are co-expressed in cEB and cLB, 10,173 are co-expressed in cEB and cEF, 11,283 are co-expressed in cEF and cMF, and 11,132 are co-expressed in cMF and cLF. The GO enrichment analysis showed that the specifically expressed genes of the body feather (cEB and cLB) are not significantly enriched for any known functions, whereas those of the flight feather (cEF, cMF, and cLF) are significantly enriched for several functions indicated in the figure
Mentions: An aggregate total of 13,973 expressed genes was expressed (FPKM > 0.1) in at least one of the 15 samples (Additional file 4: Table S3), among which 9,638 genes were expressed in all 15 samples (Fig. 3). In general, the flight feather has more specifically expressed genes than the body feather. The GO enrichment analysis showed that the specifically expressed genes of the body feather are not significantly enriched for any known functions, whereas those of the flight feather are significantly enriched for several functions (Fig. 3). We also found that 49 genes previously identified to have undergone rapid evolution and/or positive selection in avian lineages [29] are expressed in all feather samples (Additional file 5: Table S4). Most of these rapidly evolving and/or positively selected genes are enriched for cytoskeleton and cell adhesion. These proteins may have evolved new functions or properties in feathers and it is worth further investigation.Fig. 3

Bottom Line: We compared the gene expression patterns in different types of feathers and different portions of a feather and identified morphotype-specific gene expression patterns.This study laid the ground work for studying the evolutionary origin and diversification of feathers as abundant data were produced for the study of feather morphogenesis.It significantly increased our understanding of the complex molecular and cellular events in feather development processes and provided a foundation for future studies on the development of other skin appendages.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biodiversity Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, 11529, Taiwan. gcsng@gate.sinica.edu.tw.

ABSTRACT

Background: Feathers have diverse forms with hierarchical branching patterns and are an excellent model for studying the development and evolution of morphological traits. The complex structure of feathers allows for various types of morphological changes to occur. The genetic basis of the structural differences between different parts of a feather and between different types of feather is a fundamental question in the study of feather diversity, yet there is only limited relevant information for gene expression during feather development.

Results: We conducted transcriptomic analysis of five zones of feather morphologies from two feather types at different times during their regeneration after plucking. The expression profiles of genes associated with the development of feather structure were examined. We compared the gene expression patterns in different types of feathers and different portions of a feather and identified morphotype-specific gene expression patterns. Many candidate genes were identified for growth control, morphogenesis, or the differentiation of specific structures of different feather types.

Conclusion: This study laid the ground work for studying the evolutionary origin and diversification of feathers as abundant data were produced for the study of feather morphogenesis. It significantly increased our understanding of the complex molecular and cellular events in feather development processes and provided a foundation for future studies on the development of other skin appendages.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus