Limits...
Malaria ecology along the Thailand-Myanmar border.

Parker DM, Carrara VI, Pukrittayakamee S, McGready R, Nosten FH - Malar. J. (2015)

Bottom Line: The region is also a hub for ethnic diversity, being home to over ten different ethnolinguistic groups, several of which have been engaged in conflict with the Myanmar government now for over half a century.Despite these complexities, multipronged approaches including collaborations with multiple local organizations, quick access to diagnosis and treatment, prevention of mosquito bites, radical cure of parasites, and mass drug administration appear to be drastically decreasing Plasmodium falciparum infections.Such approaches remain crucial as the region moves toward elimination of P. falciparum and potentially Plasmodium vivax.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Shoklo Malaria Research Unit, Mahidol-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Mae Sot, Tak, Thailand. daniel@shoklo-unit.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Malaria in Southeast Asia frequently clusters along international borders. For example, while most of Thailand is malaria free, the border region shared with Myanmar continues to have endemic malaria. This spatial pattern is the result of complex interactions between landscape, humans, mosquito vectors, and malaria parasites. An understanding of these complex ecological and socio-cultural interactions is important for designing and implementing malaria elimination efforts in the region. This article offers an ecological perspective on the malaria situation along the Thailand-Myanmar border.

Discussion: This border region is long (2000 km), mountainous, and the environment ranges from thick forests to growing urban settlements and wet-rice fields. It is also a biologically diverse region. All five species of malaria known to naturally infect humans are present. At least three mosquito vector species complexes, with widely varying behavioural characteristics, exist in the area. The region is also a hub for ethnic diversity, being home to over ten different ethnolinguistic groups, several of which have been engaged in conflict with the Myanmar government now for over half a century. Given the biological and ethnic diversity, as well as the complex socio-political context, malaria control and elimination in the region is challenging.

Conclusion: Despite these complexities, multipronged approaches including collaborations with multiple local organizations, quick access to diagnosis and treatment, prevention of mosquito bites, radical cure of parasites, and mass drug administration appear to be drastically decreasing Plasmodium falciparum infections. Such approaches remain crucial as the region moves toward elimination of P. falciparum and potentially Plasmodium vivax.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

a Elevation map of mainland Southeast Asia. b Map of Thailand–Myanmar border area, including border states of Myanmar and provinces of Thailand. Map created using ArcMap 10.2
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Fig1: a Elevation map of mainland Southeast Asia. b Map of Thailand–Myanmar border area, including border states of Myanmar and provinces of Thailand. Map created using ArcMap 10.2

Mentions: The international border between Thailand and Myanmar stretches almost 2000 km. The population centres of both nations lie in their central plains regions, which are split along the international border by a natural buffer zone formed by the southern reaches of the Himalayas (Fig. 1). This landscape includes watersheds, river basins and valleys which are filled with primary and (mostly) secondary or tertiary forests, agricultural fields, plantations, and occasionally dense pockets of human settlements ranging from refugee camps, agricultural villages, to river and border trading towns.Fig. 1


Malaria ecology along the Thailand-Myanmar border.

Parker DM, Carrara VI, Pukrittayakamee S, McGready R, Nosten FH - Malar. J. (2015)

a Elevation map of mainland Southeast Asia. b Map of Thailand–Myanmar border area, including border states of Myanmar and provinces of Thailand. Map created using ArcMap 10.2
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4594738&req=5

Fig1: a Elevation map of mainland Southeast Asia. b Map of Thailand–Myanmar border area, including border states of Myanmar and provinces of Thailand. Map created using ArcMap 10.2
Mentions: The international border between Thailand and Myanmar stretches almost 2000 km. The population centres of both nations lie in their central plains regions, which are split along the international border by a natural buffer zone formed by the southern reaches of the Himalayas (Fig. 1). This landscape includes watersheds, river basins and valleys which are filled with primary and (mostly) secondary or tertiary forests, agricultural fields, plantations, and occasionally dense pockets of human settlements ranging from refugee camps, agricultural villages, to river and border trading towns.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: The region is also a hub for ethnic diversity, being home to over ten different ethnolinguistic groups, several of which have been engaged in conflict with the Myanmar government now for over half a century.Despite these complexities, multipronged approaches including collaborations with multiple local organizations, quick access to diagnosis and treatment, prevention of mosquito bites, radical cure of parasites, and mass drug administration appear to be drastically decreasing Plasmodium falciparum infections.Such approaches remain crucial as the region moves toward elimination of P. falciparum and potentially Plasmodium vivax.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Shoklo Malaria Research Unit, Mahidol-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Mae Sot, Tak, Thailand. daniel@shoklo-unit.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Malaria in Southeast Asia frequently clusters along international borders. For example, while most of Thailand is malaria free, the border region shared with Myanmar continues to have endemic malaria. This spatial pattern is the result of complex interactions between landscape, humans, mosquito vectors, and malaria parasites. An understanding of these complex ecological and socio-cultural interactions is important for designing and implementing malaria elimination efforts in the region. This article offers an ecological perspective on the malaria situation along the Thailand-Myanmar border.

Discussion: This border region is long (2000 km), mountainous, and the environment ranges from thick forests to growing urban settlements and wet-rice fields. It is also a biologically diverse region. All five species of malaria known to naturally infect humans are present. At least three mosquito vector species complexes, with widely varying behavioural characteristics, exist in the area. The region is also a hub for ethnic diversity, being home to over ten different ethnolinguistic groups, several of which have been engaged in conflict with the Myanmar government now for over half a century. Given the biological and ethnic diversity, as well as the complex socio-political context, malaria control and elimination in the region is challenging.

Conclusion: Despite these complexities, multipronged approaches including collaborations with multiple local organizations, quick access to diagnosis and treatment, prevention of mosquito bites, radical cure of parasites, and mass drug administration appear to be drastically decreasing Plasmodium falciparum infections. Such approaches remain crucial as the region moves toward elimination of P. falciparum and potentially Plasmodium vivax.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus