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Longitudinal analysis of Plasmodium sporozoite motility in the dermis reveals component of blood vessel recognition.

Hopp CS, Chiou K, Ragheb DR, Salman A, Khan SM, Liu AJ, Sinnis P - Elife (2015)

Bottom Line: How sporozoites locate and enter a blood vessel is a critical, but poorly understood process.Our data suggest that sporozoites exhibit two types of motility: in regions far from blood vessels, they exhibit 'avascular motility', defined by high speed and less confinement, while in the vicinity of blood vessels their motility is more constrained.Imaging of sporozoites with mutations in key adhesive proteins highlight the importance of the sporozoite's gliding speed and its ability to modulate adhesive properties for successful exit from the inoculation site.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, United States.

ABSTRACT
Malaria infection starts with injection of Plasmodium sporozoites by an Anopheles mosquito into the skin of the mammalian host. How sporozoites locate and enter a blood vessel is a critical, but poorly understood process. In this study, we examine sporozoite motility and their interaction with dermal blood vessels, using intravital microscopy in mice. Our data suggest that sporozoites exhibit two types of motility: in regions far from blood vessels, they exhibit 'avascular motility', defined by high speed and less confinement, while in the vicinity of blood vessels their motility is more constrained. We find that curvature of sporozoite tracks engaging with vasculature optimizes contact with dermal capillaries. Imaging of sporozoites with mutations in key adhesive proteins highlight the importance of the sporozoite's gliding speed and its ability to modulate adhesive properties for successful exit from the inoculation site.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Absolute number of sporozoites exhibiting different motility patterns over time.Data from two complete time courses were combined and shown is the absolute number of total sporozoites at the inoculation site at each time point and of these, the number that are non-motile, continuously circling and meandering.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07789.005
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fig1s1: Absolute number of sporozoites exhibiting different motility patterns over time.Data from two complete time courses were combined and shown is the absolute number of total sporozoites at the inoculation site at each time point and of these, the number that are non-motile, continuously circling and meandering.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07789.005

Mentions: While the ability of sporozoites to disperse decreases significantly after 20 min and further during the following 100 min, the apparent gliding speed does not change significantly until 60 min after inoculation (Figure 1D), which shows that the decrease in MSD is not merely a reflection of sporozoites moving more slowly. This prompted us to look at the pattern with which sporozoites move at the different time points. Over time, an increasing number of parasites engage in continuous circular motility (Figure 1E). While at early time points, this sporozoite behavior is seen less frequently, at 20 min and 30 min after inoculation, approximately 22% and 36% of total sporozoites exhibit continuously circling motility. Importantly, at these time points the increased percentage of circling sporozoites is not the result of the other motile sporozoites leaving the field, but rather an increase in the absolute number of sporozoites that are exclusively circling (Figure 1—figure supplement 1). However, by 60 and 120 min, there are 20 and 40% fewer sporozoites in the field, respectively, and an increased number of non-motile sporozoites. Thus, at 120 min almost all moving sporozoites are circling (Figure 1E and Figure 1—figure supplement 1).


Longitudinal analysis of Plasmodium sporozoite motility in the dermis reveals component of blood vessel recognition.

Hopp CS, Chiou K, Ragheb DR, Salman A, Khan SM, Liu AJ, Sinnis P - Elife (2015)

Absolute number of sporozoites exhibiting different motility patterns over time.Data from two complete time courses were combined and shown is the absolute number of total sporozoites at the inoculation site at each time point and of these, the number that are non-motile, continuously circling and meandering.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07789.005
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4594146&req=5

fig1s1: Absolute number of sporozoites exhibiting different motility patterns over time.Data from two complete time courses were combined and shown is the absolute number of total sporozoites at the inoculation site at each time point and of these, the number that are non-motile, continuously circling and meandering.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07789.005
Mentions: While the ability of sporozoites to disperse decreases significantly after 20 min and further during the following 100 min, the apparent gliding speed does not change significantly until 60 min after inoculation (Figure 1D), which shows that the decrease in MSD is not merely a reflection of sporozoites moving more slowly. This prompted us to look at the pattern with which sporozoites move at the different time points. Over time, an increasing number of parasites engage in continuous circular motility (Figure 1E). While at early time points, this sporozoite behavior is seen less frequently, at 20 min and 30 min after inoculation, approximately 22% and 36% of total sporozoites exhibit continuously circling motility. Importantly, at these time points the increased percentage of circling sporozoites is not the result of the other motile sporozoites leaving the field, but rather an increase in the absolute number of sporozoites that are exclusively circling (Figure 1—figure supplement 1). However, by 60 and 120 min, there are 20 and 40% fewer sporozoites in the field, respectively, and an increased number of non-motile sporozoites. Thus, at 120 min almost all moving sporozoites are circling (Figure 1E and Figure 1—figure supplement 1).

Bottom Line: How sporozoites locate and enter a blood vessel is a critical, but poorly understood process.Our data suggest that sporozoites exhibit two types of motility: in regions far from blood vessels, they exhibit 'avascular motility', defined by high speed and less confinement, while in the vicinity of blood vessels their motility is more constrained.Imaging of sporozoites with mutations in key adhesive proteins highlight the importance of the sporozoite's gliding speed and its ability to modulate adhesive properties for successful exit from the inoculation site.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, United States.

ABSTRACT
Malaria infection starts with injection of Plasmodium sporozoites by an Anopheles mosquito into the skin of the mammalian host. How sporozoites locate and enter a blood vessel is a critical, but poorly understood process. In this study, we examine sporozoite motility and their interaction with dermal blood vessels, using intravital microscopy in mice. Our data suggest that sporozoites exhibit two types of motility: in regions far from blood vessels, they exhibit 'avascular motility', defined by high speed and less confinement, while in the vicinity of blood vessels their motility is more constrained. We find that curvature of sporozoite tracks engaging with vasculature optimizes contact with dermal capillaries. Imaging of sporozoites with mutations in key adhesive proteins highlight the importance of the sporozoite's gliding speed and its ability to modulate adhesive properties for successful exit from the inoculation site.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus