Limits...
Five-Kilometers Time Trial: Preliminary Validation of a Short Test for Cycling Performance Evaluation.

Dantas JL, Pereira G, Nakamura FY - Asian J Sports Med (2015)

Bottom Line: These variables showed adequate sensitivity index (> 1).Coaches can detect performance changes through either absolute (± 17.7 W) or relative power output (± 0.3 W.kg(-1)), the time to complete the test (± 13.4 s) and the average speed (± 1.0 km.h(-1)).Furthermore, TT5km performance can also be used to rank the athletes according to their aerobic endurance fitness.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neurosciences and Imaging, Gabriele d'Annunzio University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy ; Department of Physical Education, State University of Londrina, Londrina, Brazil.

ABSTRACT

Background: The five-kilometer time trial (TT5km) has been used to assess aerobic endurance performance without further investigation of its validity.

Objectives: This study aimed to perform a preliminary validation of the TT5km to rank well-trained cyclists based on aerobic endurance fitness and assess changes of the aerobic endurance performance.

Materials and methods: After the incremental test, 20 cyclists (age = 31.3 ± 7.9 years; body mass index = 22.7 ± 1.5 kg/m(2); maximal aerobic power = 360.5 ± 49.5 W) performed the TT5km twice, collecting performance (time to complete, absolute and relative power output, average speed) and physiological responses (heart rate and electromyography activity). The validation criteria were pacing strategy, absolute and relative reliability, validity, and sensitivity. Sensitivity index was obtained from the ratio between the smallest worthwhile change and typical error.

Results: The TT5km showed high absolute (coefficient of variation < 3%) and relative (intraclass coefficient correlation > 0.95) reliability of performance variables, whereas it presented low reliability of physiological responses. The TT5km performance variables were highly correlated with the aerobic endurance indices obtained from incremental test (r > 0.70). These variables showed adequate sensitivity index (> 1).

Conclusions: TT5km is a valid test to rank the aerobic endurance fitness of well-trained cyclists and to differentiate changes on aerobic endurance performance. Coaches can detect performance changes through either absolute (± 17.7 W) or relative power output (± 0.3 W.kg(-1)), the time to complete the test (± 13.4 s) and the average speed (± 1.0 km.h(-1)). Furthermore, TT5km performance can also be used to rank the athletes according to their aerobic endurance fitness.

No MeSH data available.


Schematic Representation of the ProtocolA) Entire protocol showing all sessions; B) Time trial 5 kilometers session (TT5km); HRVT1 = first and HRVT2 = second heart rate variability threshold; PO = power output; HR = heart rate; T-V = torque-velocity test; RMSMAX = maximal root mean square from T-V; rec. = recovery; 5KPO = average power output of TT5km; 5KTime = time to complete TT5km; 5KAVS = average speed of TT5km; QEMG = normalized electromyography activity of the quadriceps muscle; RPE = rating of perceived exertion.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4594133&req=5

fig22632: Schematic Representation of the ProtocolA) Entire protocol showing all sessions; B) Time trial 5 kilometers session (TT5km); HRVT1 = first and HRVT2 = second heart rate variability threshold; PO = power output; HR = heart rate; T-V = torque-velocity test; RMSMAX = maximal root mean square from T-V; rec. = recovery; 5KPO = average power output of TT5km; 5KTime = time to complete TT5km; 5KAVS = average speed of TT5km; QEMG = normalized electromyography activity of the quadriceps muscle; RPE = rating of perceived exertion.

Mentions: In the 2nd and 3rd sessions, separated by at least two recovery days, each volunteer performed two TT5km on cycle simulator (TT5km1, TT5km2). Before testing, the volunteers had performed a freely chosen light warm-up (~100W during 10 minutes), becoming familiar with the electronic gear ratios. The setup of cycle simulator was reproduced in both TT5km sessions for each athlete. After warming-up, the participants performed a torque-velocity test to normalize the quadriceps muscle electromyography (31) (see details in the Electromyography Activity section). Five minutes after torque-velocity test, the participants performed a standardized warm-up (consisting of 3 sets of 5 minutes at 70, 80, and 90% of power output corresponding to the first heart rate variability threshold) (32). After two minutes of rest, the TT5km was initiated. Figure 1 shows the protocol overview.


Five-Kilometers Time Trial: Preliminary Validation of a Short Test for Cycling Performance Evaluation.

Dantas JL, Pereira G, Nakamura FY - Asian J Sports Med (2015)

Schematic Representation of the ProtocolA) Entire protocol showing all sessions; B) Time trial 5 kilometers session (TT5km); HRVT1 = first and HRVT2 = second heart rate variability threshold; PO = power output; HR = heart rate; T-V = torque-velocity test; RMSMAX = maximal root mean square from T-V; rec. = recovery; 5KPO = average power output of TT5km; 5KTime = time to complete TT5km; 5KAVS = average speed of TT5km; QEMG = normalized electromyography activity of the quadriceps muscle; RPE = rating of perceived exertion.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4594133&req=5

fig22632: Schematic Representation of the ProtocolA) Entire protocol showing all sessions; B) Time trial 5 kilometers session (TT5km); HRVT1 = first and HRVT2 = second heart rate variability threshold; PO = power output; HR = heart rate; T-V = torque-velocity test; RMSMAX = maximal root mean square from T-V; rec. = recovery; 5KPO = average power output of TT5km; 5KTime = time to complete TT5km; 5KAVS = average speed of TT5km; QEMG = normalized electromyography activity of the quadriceps muscle; RPE = rating of perceived exertion.
Mentions: In the 2nd and 3rd sessions, separated by at least two recovery days, each volunteer performed two TT5km on cycle simulator (TT5km1, TT5km2). Before testing, the volunteers had performed a freely chosen light warm-up (~100W during 10 minutes), becoming familiar with the electronic gear ratios. The setup of cycle simulator was reproduced in both TT5km sessions for each athlete. After warming-up, the participants performed a torque-velocity test to normalize the quadriceps muscle electromyography (31) (see details in the Electromyography Activity section). Five minutes after torque-velocity test, the participants performed a standardized warm-up (consisting of 3 sets of 5 minutes at 70, 80, and 90% of power output corresponding to the first heart rate variability threshold) (32). After two minutes of rest, the TT5km was initiated. Figure 1 shows the protocol overview.

Bottom Line: These variables showed adequate sensitivity index (> 1).Coaches can detect performance changes through either absolute (± 17.7 W) or relative power output (± 0.3 W.kg(-1)), the time to complete the test (± 13.4 s) and the average speed (± 1.0 km.h(-1)).Furthermore, TT5km performance can also be used to rank the athletes according to their aerobic endurance fitness.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neurosciences and Imaging, Gabriele d'Annunzio University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy ; Department of Physical Education, State University of Londrina, Londrina, Brazil.

ABSTRACT

Background: The five-kilometer time trial (TT5km) has been used to assess aerobic endurance performance without further investigation of its validity.

Objectives: This study aimed to perform a preliminary validation of the TT5km to rank well-trained cyclists based on aerobic endurance fitness and assess changes of the aerobic endurance performance.

Materials and methods: After the incremental test, 20 cyclists (age = 31.3 ± 7.9 years; body mass index = 22.7 ± 1.5 kg/m(2); maximal aerobic power = 360.5 ± 49.5 W) performed the TT5km twice, collecting performance (time to complete, absolute and relative power output, average speed) and physiological responses (heart rate and electromyography activity). The validation criteria were pacing strategy, absolute and relative reliability, validity, and sensitivity. Sensitivity index was obtained from the ratio between the smallest worthwhile change and typical error.

Results: The TT5km showed high absolute (coefficient of variation < 3%) and relative (intraclass coefficient correlation > 0.95) reliability of performance variables, whereas it presented low reliability of physiological responses. The TT5km performance variables were highly correlated with the aerobic endurance indices obtained from incremental test (r > 0.70). These variables showed adequate sensitivity index (> 1).

Conclusions: TT5km is a valid test to rank the aerobic endurance fitness of well-trained cyclists and to differentiate changes on aerobic endurance performance. Coaches can detect performance changes through either absolute (± 17.7 W) or relative power output (± 0.3 W.kg(-1)), the time to complete the test (± 13.4 s) and the average speed (± 1.0 km.h(-1)). Furthermore, TT5km performance can also be used to rank the athletes according to their aerobic endurance fitness.

No MeSH data available.