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Fluid catalytic cracking: recent developments on the grand old lady of zeolite catalysis.

Vogt ET, Weckhuysen BM - Chem Soc Rev (2015)

Bottom Line: These trends include ways to make it possible to process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels.In addition, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing FCC catalysts at the single particle level.These new characterization tools are able to explain the influence of the harsh FCC processing conditions (e.g. steam) and the presence of various metal poisons (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the crude oil feedstocks on the 3-D structure and accessibility of FCC catalyst materials.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis Group, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG Utrecht, The Netherlands. e.t.c.vogt@uu.nl b.m.weckhuysen@uu.nl.

ABSTRACT
Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is one of the major conversion technologies in the oil refinery industry. FCC currently produces the majority of the world's gasoline, as well as an important fraction of propylene for the polymer industry. In this critical review, we give an overview of the latest trends in this field of research. These trends include ways to make it possible to process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels. After providing some general background of the FCC process, including a short history as well as details on the process, reactor design, chemical reactions involved and catalyst material, we will discuss several trends in FCC catalysis research by focusing on ways to improve the zeolite structure stability, propylene selectivity and the overall catalyst accessibility by (a) the addition of rare earth elements and phosphorus, (b) constructing hierarchical pores systems and (c) the introduction of new zeolite structures. In addition, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing FCC catalysts at the single particle level. These new characterization tools are able to explain the influence of the harsh FCC processing conditions (e.g. steam) and the presence of various metal poisons (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the crude oil feedstocks on the 3-D structure and accessibility of FCC catalyst materials.

No MeSH data available.


Typical molecules that could be found in an FCC feedstock, depicting larger aromatic structures with alkyl side-chains, as well as impurities: in this case sulfur (yellow) and nitrogen (blue). Structures based on VGO-molecule cores described in Fu et al. and Ma et al.27 The structures were sketched in the ADF-builder, and energy-minimized using the built-in UFF force field in ADF.28 The resulting atomic positions were rendered with POV-Ray 3.6.29
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fig4: Typical molecules that could be found in an FCC feedstock, depicting larger aromatic structures with alkyl side-chains, as well as impurities: in this case sulfur (yellow) and nitrogen (blue). Structures based on VGO-molecule cores described in Fu et al. and Ma et al.27 The structures were sketched in the ADF-builder, and energy-minimized using the built-in UFF force field in ADF.28 The resulting atomic positions were rendered with POV-Ray 3.6.29

Mentions: The function of the FCC unit in an oil refinery is to convert heavy gas oil (HGO), vacuum gas oil (VGO) or residue feedstocks into useful products. Fig. 4, based on models by Fu et al. and Ma et al.,27 provides an artist impression of molecules such as could be found in an FCC feedstock, depicting larger aromatic structures with alkyl side-chains, as well as sulfur and nitrogen impurities (oxygen would be present in similar molecules), while Fig. 5a illustrates the complexity of a typical VGO feedstock with a GC × GC plot. When applying a zeolite Y-containing FCC catalyst material the wide variety of molecules present in the VGO feedstock is converted into molecules with on average a lower molecular weight, as illustrated in Fig. 5b, including molecules in the gasoline range (i.e., the 150 °C boiling temperature range). A typical molecule in the gasoline range would be 2,2,3-trimethylpentane (i.e., iso-octane). VGO feedstocks typically boil at 340–540 °C30 while resid has a higher boiling range (>540 °C), and contains multi-layered systems of poly-aromatic rings.


Fluid catalytic cracking: recent developments on the grand old lady of zeolite catalysis.

Vogt ET, Weckhuysen BM - Chem Soc Rev (2015)

Typical molecules that could be found in an FCC feedstock, depicting larger aromatic structures with alkyl side-chains, as well as impurities: in this case sulfur (yellow) and nitrogen (blue). Structures based on VGO-molecule cores described in Fu et al. and Ma et al.27 The structures were sketched in the ADF-builder, and energy-minimized using the built-in UFF force field in ADF.28 The resulting atomic positions were rendered with POV-Ray 3.6.29
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4594121&req=5

fig4: Typical molecules that could be found in an FCC feedstock, depicting larger aromatic structures with alkyl side-chains, as well as impurities: in this case sulfur (yellow) and nitrogen (blue). Structures based on VGO-molecule cores described in Fu et al. and Ma et al.27 The structures were sketched in the ADF-builder, and energy-minimized using the built-in UFF force field in ADF.28 The resulting atomic positions were rendered with POV-Ray 3.6.29
Mentions: The function of the FCC unit in an oil refinery is to convert heavy gas oil (HGO), vacuum gas oil (VGO) or residue feedstocks into useful products. Fig. 4, based on models by Fu et al. and Ma et al.,27 provides an artist impression of molecules such as could be found in an FCC feedstock, depicting larger aromatic structures with alkyl side-chains, as well as sulfur and nitrogen impurities (oxygen would be present in similar molecules), while Fig. 5a illustrates the complexity of a typical VGO feedstock with a GC × GC plot. When applying a zeolite Y-containing FCC catalyst material the wide variety of molecules present in the VGO feedstock is converted into molecules with on average a lower molecular weight, as illustrated in Fig. 5b, including molecules in the gasoline range (i.e., the 150 °C boiling temperature range). A typical molecule in the gasoline range would be 2,2,3-trimethylpentane (i.e., iso-octane). VGO feedstocks typically boil at 340–540 °C30 while resid has a higher boiling range (>540 °C), and contains multi-layered systems of poly-aromatic rings.

Bottom Line: These trends include ways to make it possible to process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels.In addition, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing FCC catalysts at the single particle level.These new characterization tools are able to explain the influence of the harsh FCC processing conditions (e.g. steam) and the presence of various metal poisons (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the crude oil feedstocks on the 3-D structure and accessibility of FCC catalyst materials.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis Group, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG Utrecht, The Netherlands. e.t.c.vogt@uu.nl b.m.weckhuysen@uu.nl.

ABSTRACT
Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is one of the major conversion technologies in the oil refinery industry. FCC currently produces the majority of the world's gasoline, as well as an important fraction of propylene for the polymer industry. In this critical review, we give an overview of the latest trends in this field of research. These trends include ways to make it possible to process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels. After providing some general background of the FCC process, including a short history as well as details on the process, reactor design, chemical reactions involved and catalyst material, we will discuss several trends in FCC catalysis research by focusing on ways to improve the zeolite structure stability, propylene selectivity and the overall catalyst accessibility by (a) the addition of rare earth elements and phosphorus, (b) constructing hierarchical pores systems and (c) the introduction of new zeolite structures. In addition, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing FCC catalysts at the single particle level. These new characterization tools are able to explain the influence of the harsh FCC processing conditions (e.g. steam) and the presence of various metal poisons (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the crude oil feedstocks on the 3-D structure and accessibility of FCC catalyst materials.

No MeSH data available.