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Fluid catalytic cracking: recent developments on the grand old lady of zeolite catalysis.

Vogt ET, Weckhuysen BM - Chem Soc Rev (2015)

Bottom Line: These trends include ways to make it possible to process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels.In addition, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing FCC catalysts at the single particle level.These new characterization tools are able to explain the influence of the harsh FCC processing conditions (e.g. steam) and the presence of various metal poisons (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the crude oil feedstocks on the 3-D structure and accessibility of FCC catalyst materials.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis Group, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG Utrecht, The Netherlands. e.t.c.vogt@uu.nl b.m.weckhuysen@uu.nl.

ABSTRACT
Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is one of the major conversion technologies in the oil refinery industry. FCC currently produces the majority of the world's gasoline, as well as an important fraction of propylene for the polymer industry. In this critical review, we give an overview of the latest trends in this field of research. These trends include ways to make it possible to process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels. After providing some general background of the FCC process, including a short history as well as details on the process, reactor design, chemical reactions involved and catalyst material, we will discuss several trends in FCC catalysis research by focusing on ways to improve the zeolite structure stability, propylene selectivity and the overall catalyst accessibility by (a) the addition of rare earth elements and phosphorus, (b) constructing hierarchical pores systems and (c) the introduction of new zeolite structures. In addition, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing FCC catalysts at the single particle level. These new characterization tools are able to explain the influence of the harsh FCC processing conditions (e.g. steam) and the presence of various metal poisons (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the crude oil feedstocks on the 3-D structure and accessibility of FCC catalyst materials.

No MeSH data available.


Model for the functional and structural degradation of zeolite Y crystals in FCC catalyst particles in an industrial catalytic cracking unit. The right placed red arrow indicates the relative change in fluorescence intensity measured for each ultra-structure feature. (Reproduced with permission from ref. 183, Copyright Wiley-VCH, 2013).
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fig34: Model for the functional and structural degradation of zeolite Y crystals in FCC catalyst particles in an industrial catalytic cracking unit. The right placed red arrow indicates the relative change in fluorescence intensity measured for each ultra-structure feature. (Reproduced with permission from ref. 183, Copyright Wiley-VCH, 2013).

Mentions: From the detailed iLEM characterization study Karreman and co-workers have proposed a model for the functional and structural degradation of zeolite Y crystals in FCC and E-cat catalyst particles. This is summarized in Fig. 34. FCC catalyst particles have a different deactivation route than E-cat catalyst particles. In the case of an E-cat catalyst particle, deactivation occurs mostly through fragmentation and/or decrystallization of zeolite crystals and the formation of meso- and macropores (Fig. 34, right hand side). Furthermore, the observed “clotting” of mesoporous zeolites (Fig. 34, left hand side) is limited to E-cat materials. In contrast, steam deactivation strongly induces the severing of the zeolite Y crystals, while the formation of fragments in these samples is very rarely observed. The latter indicates that the formation of fragments is a phenomenon reserved for the harsh industrial catalytic cracking conditions.


Fluid catalytic cracking: recent developments on the grand old lady of zeolite catalysis.

Vogt ET, Weckhuysen BM - Chem Soc Rev (2015)

Model for the functional and structural degradation of zeolite Y crystals in FCC catalyst particles in an industrial catalytic cracking unit. The right placed red arrow indicates the relative change in fluorescence intensity measured for each ultra-structure feature. (Reproduced with permission from ref. 183, Copyright Wiley-VCH, 2013).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4594121&req=5

fig34: Model for the functional and structural degradation of zeolite Y crystals in FCC catalyst particles in an industrial catalytic cracking unit. The right placed red arrow indicates the relative change in fluorescence intensity measured for each ultra-structure feature. (Reproduced with permission from ref. 183, Copyright Wiley-VCH, 2013).
Mentions: From the detailed iLEM characterization study Karreman and co-workers have proposed a model for the functional and structural degradation of zeolite Y crystals in FCC and E-cat catalyst particles. This is summarized in Fig. 34. FCC catalyst particles have a different deactivation route than E-cat catalyst particles. In the case of an E-cat catalyst particle, deactivation occurs mostly through fragmentation and/or decrystallization of zeolite crystals and the formation of meso- and macropores (Fig. 34, right hand side). Furthermore, the observed “clotting” of mesoporous zeolites (Fig. 34, left hand side) is limited to E-cat materials. In contrast, steam deactivation strongly induces the severing of the zeolite Y crystals, while the formation of fragments in these samples is very rarely observed. The latter indicates that the formation of fragments is a phenomenon reserved for the harsh industrial catalytic cracking conditions.

Bottom Line: These trends include ways to make it possible to process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels.In addition, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing FCC catalysts at the single particle level.These new characterization tools are able to explain the influence of the harsh FCC processing conditions (e.g. steam) and the presence of various metal poisons (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the crude oil feedstocks on the 3-D structure and accessibility of FCC catalyst materials.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis Group, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG Utrecht, The Netherlands. e.t.c.vogt@uu.nl b.m.weckhuysen@uu.nl.

ABSTRACT
Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is one of the major conversion technologies in the oil refinery industry. FCC currently produces the majority of the world's gasoline, as well as an important fraction of propylene for the polymer industry. In this critical review, we give an overview of the latest trends in this field of research. These trends include ways to make it possible to process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels. After providing some general background of the FCC process, including a short history as well as details on the process, reactor design, chemical reactions involved and catalyst material, we will discuss several trends in FCC catalysis research by focusing on ways to improve the zeolite structure stability, propylene selectivity and the overall catalyst accessibility by (a) the addition of rare earth elements and phosphorus, (b) constructing hierarchical pores systems and (c) the introduction of new zeolite structures. In addition, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing FCC catalysts at the single particle level. These new characterization tools are able to explain the influence of the harsh FCC processing conditions (e.g. steam) and the presence of various metal poisons (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the crude oil feedstocks on the 3-D structure and accessibility of FCC catalyst materials.

No MeSH data available.