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Fluid catalytic cracking: recent developments on the grand old lady of zeolite catalysis.

Vogt ET, Weckhuysen BM - Chem Soc Rev (2015)

Bottom Line: These trends include ways to make it possible to process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels.In addition, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing FCC catalysts at the single particle level.These new characterization tools are able to explain the influence of the harsh FCC processing conditions (e.g. steam) and the presence of various metal poisons (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the crude oil feedstocks on the 3-D structure and accessibility of FCC catalyst materials.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis Group, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG Utrecht, The Netherlands. e.t.c.vogt@uu.nl b.m.weckhuysen@uu.nl.

ABSTRACT
Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is one of the major conversion technologies in the oil refinery industry. FCC currently produces the majority of the world's gasoline, as well as an important fraction of propylene for the polymer industry. In this critical review, we give an overview of the latest trends in this field of research. These trends include ways to make it possible to process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels. After providing some general background of the FCC process, including a short history as well as details on the process, reactor design, chemical reactions involved and catalyst material, we will discuss several trends in FCC catalysis research by focusing on ways to improve the zeolite structure stability, propylene selectivity and the overall catalyst accessibility by (a) the addition of rare earth elements and phosphorus, (b) constructing hierarchical pores systems and (c) the introduction of new zeolite structures. In addition, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing FCC catalysts at the single particle level. These new characterization tools are able to explain the influence of the harsh FCC processing conditions (e.g. steam) and the presence of various metal poisons (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the crude oil feedstocks on the 3-D structure and accessibility of FCC catalyst materials.

No MeSH data available.


(a) SE SEM image of an FCC catalyst particle. (b) BSE SEM image; (c) confocal fluorescence microscopy image (λex = 561 nm, detection 570–620 nm, false color image) and (d) overlay of the BSE SEM image with the confocal fluorescence microscopy image for the particle depicted in (a) after milling away a 7 μm thick slice using the FIB. (e) Three-dimensional reconstruction of the porous network in a volume of 24.6 × 12.1 × 2.0 μm of an FCC particle, constructed from the combination of a number of FIB-SEM images. Macropores are shown in blue, the external surface is shown in yellow. Reproduced from ref. 181.
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fig33: (a) SE SEM image of an FCC catalyst particle. (b) BSE SEM image; (c) confocal fluorescence microscopy image (λex = 561 nm, detection 570–620 nm, false color image) and (d) overlay of the BSE SEM image with the confocal fluorescence microscopy image for the particle depicted in (a) after milling away a 7 μm thick slice using the FIB. (e) Three-dimensional reconstruction of the porous network in a volume of 24.6 × 12.1 × 2.0 μm of an FCC particle, constructed from the combination of a number of FIB-SEM images. Macropores are shown in blue, the external surface is shown in yellow. Reproduced from ref. 181.

Mentions: In an analogous manner, Buurmans, de Winter and co-workers have first stained the zeolite domains within individual FCC catalyst particles by making use of 4-fluorostyrene as probe molecule, followed by subsequently FIB-milling the catalyst particle, followed by imaging the porosity network with SEM.181,182Fig. 33 shows a snapshot of the porous network of an FCC catalyst particle, including a fluorescence microscopy image, illustrating that both zeolite domains and porosity can be imaged, and both types of information can be correlated.


Fluid catalytic cracking: recent developments on the grand old lady of zeolite catalysis.

Vogt ET, Weckhuysen BM - Chem Soc Rev (2015)

(a) SE SEM image of an FCC catalyst particle. (b) BSE SEM image; (c) confocal fluorescence microscopy image (λex = 561 nm, detection 570–620 nm, false color image) and (d) overlay of the BSE SEM image with the confocal fluorescence microscopy image for the particle depicted in (a) after milling away a 7 μm thick slice using the FIB. (e) Three-dimensional reconstruction of the porous network in a volume of 24.6 × 12.1 × 2.0 μm of an FCC particle, constructed from the combination of a number of FIB-SEM images. Macropores are shown in blue, the external surface is shown in yellow. Reproduced from ref. 181.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4594121&req=5

fig33: (a) SE SEM image of an FCC catalyst particle. (b) BSE SEM image; (c) confocal fluorescence microscopy image (λex = 561 nm, detection 570–620 nm, false color image) and (d) overlay of the BSE SEM image with the confocal fluorescence microscopy image for the particle depicted in (a) after milling away a 7 μm thick slice using the FIB. (e) Three-dimensional reconstruction of the porous network in a volume of 24.6 × 12.1 × 2.0 μm of an FCC particle, constructed from the combination of a number of FIB-SEM images. Macropores are shown in blue, the external surface is shown in yellow. Reproduced from ref. 181.
Mentions: In an analogous manner, Buurmans, de Winter and co-workers have first stained the zeolite domains within individual FCC catalyst particles by making use of 4-fluorostyrene as probe molecule, followed by subsequently FIB-milling the catalyst particle, followed by imaging the porosity network with SEM.181,182Fig. 33 shows a snapshot of the porous network of an FCC catalyst particle, including a fluorescence microscopy image, illustrating that both zeolite domains and porosity can be imaged, and both types of information can be correlated.

Bottom Line: These trends include ways to make it possible to process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels.In addition, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing FCC catalysts at the single particle level.These new characterization tools are able to explain the influence of the harsh FCC processing conditions (e.g. steam) and the presence of various metal poisons (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the crude oil feedstocks on the 3-D structure and accessibility of FCC catalyst materials.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis Group, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG Utrecht, The Netherlands. e.t.c.vogt@uu.nl b.m.weckhuysen@uu.nl.

ABSTRACT
Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is one of the major conversion technologies in the oil refinery industry. FCC currently produces the majority of the world's gasoline, as well as an important fraction of propylene for the polymer industry. In this critical review, we give an overview of the latest trends in this field of research. These trends include ways to make it possible to process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels. After providing some general background of the FCC process, including a short history as well as details on the process, reactor design, chemical reactions involved and catalyst material, we will discuss several trends in FCC catalysis research by focusing on ways to improve the zeolite structure stability, propylene selectivity and the overall catalyst accessibility by (a) the addition of rare earth elements and phosphorus, (b) constructing hierarchical pores systems and (c) the introduction of new zeolite structures. In addition, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing FCC catalysts at the single particle level. These new characterization tools are able to explain the influence of the harsh FCC processing conditions (e.g. steam) and the presence of various metal poisons (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the crude oil feedstocks on the 3-D structure and accessibility of FCC catalyst materials.

No MeSH data available.