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Fluid catalytic cracking: recent developments on the grand old lady of zeolite catalysis.

Vogt ET, Weckhuysen BM - Chem Soc Rev (2015)

Bottom Line: These trends include ways to make it possible to process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels.In addition, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing FCC catalysts at the single particle level.These new characterization tools are able to explain the influence of the harsh FCC processing conditions (e.g. steam) and the presence of various metal poisons (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the crude oil feedstocks on the 3-D structure and accessibility of FCC catalyst materials.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis Group, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG Utrecht, The Netherlands. e.t.c.vogt@uu.nl b.m.weckhuysen@uu.nl.

ABSTRACT
Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is one of the major conversion technologies in the oil refinery industry. FCC currently produces the majority of the world's gasoline, as well as an important fraction of propylene for the polymer industry. In this critical review, we give an overview of the latest trends in this field of research. These trends include ways to make it possible to process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels. After providing some general background of the FCC process, including a short history as well as details on the process, reactor design, chemical reactions involved and catalyst material, we will discuss several trends in FCC catalysis research by focusing on ways to improve the zeolite structure stability, propylene selectivity and the overall catalyst accessibility by (a) the addition of rare earth elements and phosphorus, (b) constructing hierarchical pores systems and (c) the introduction of new zeolite structures. In addition, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing FCC catalysts at the single particle level. These new characterization tools are able to explain the influence of the harsh FCC processing conditions (e.g. steam) and the presence of various metal poisons (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the crude oil feedstocks on the 3-D structure and accessibility of FCC catalyst materials.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Interparticle Brønsted acidity mapping for seven FCC1 catalyst particles, which have been subjected to different degrees of deactivation; i.e., fresh, two-step cyclic deactivated (CD), Mitchell impregnated-steam deactivated (MI), and their comparison with the mapping results of seven E-cat catalyst particles. (Reproduced with permission from ref. 175, Copyright Macmillan Publishers, 2011).
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fig29: Interparticle Brønsted acidity mapping for seven FCC1 catalyst particles, which have been subjected to different degrees of deactivation; i.e., fresh, two-step cyclic deactivated (CD), Mitchell impregnated-steam deactivated (MI), and their comparison with the mapping results of seven E-cat catalyst particles. (Reproduced with permission from ref. 175, Copyright Macmillan Publishers, 2011).

Mentions: These findings have been corroborated by catalytic cracking activity measurements, as well as bulk XRD, IR spectroscopy after pyridine adsorption, TPD of ammonia and N2 physisorption measurements. These additional bulk characterization data on the two sets of FCC catalyst batches confirmed that the developed confocal fluorescence microscopy data are in line with the observed Brønsted acidity trends. Finally, the advantage of developed single particle analysis approach is that the average fluorescence intensity per individual FCC catalyst particle can be determined. This is shown in Fig. 29. It was found that the range of fluorescence intensities observed for the E-cat sample is wider than for CD and MI combined, reflecting the large interparticle heterogeneity in terms of age, Brønsted acidity and catalytic activity within an industrial E-cat sample. Interestingly, a similar wide range in fluorescence intensity, hence Brønsted acidity, was also observed for fresh FCC catalyst particles.


Fluid catalytic cracking: recent developments on the grand old lady of zeolite catalysis.

Vogt ET, Weckhuysen BM - Chem Soc Rev (2015)

Interparticle Brønsted acidity mapping for seven FCC1 catalyst particles, which have been subjected to different degrees of deactivation; i.e., fresh, two-step cyclic deactivated (CD), Mitchell impregnated-steam deactivated (MI), and their comparison with the mapping results of seven E-cat catalyst particles. (Reproduced with permission from ref. 175, Copyright Macmillan Publishers, 2011).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4594121&req=5

fig29: Interparticle Brønsted acidity mapping for seven FCC1 catalyst particles, which have been subjected to different degrees of deactivation; i.e., fresh, two-step cyclic deactivated (CD), Mitchell impregnated-steam deactivated (MI), and their comparison with the mapping results of seven E-cat catalyst particles. (Reproduced with permission from ref. 175, Copyright Macmillan Publishers, 2011).
Mentions: These findings have been corroborated by catalytic cracking activity measurements, as well as bulk XRD, IR spectroscopy after pyridine adsorption, TPD of ammonia and N2 physisorption measurements. These additional bulk characterization data on the two sets of FCC catalyst batches confirmed that the developed confocal fluorescence microscopy data are in line with the observed Brønsted acidity trends. Finally, the advantage of developed single particle analysis approach is that the average fluorescence intensity per individual FCC catalyst particle can be determined. This is shown in Fig. 29. It was found that the range of fluorescence intensities observed for the E-cat sample is wider than for CD and MI combined, reflecting the large interparticle heterogeneity in terms of age, Brønsted acidity and catalytic activity within an industrial E-cat sample. Interestingly, a similar wide range in fluorescence intensity, hence Brønsted acidity, was also observed for fresh FCC catalyst particles.

Bottom Line: These trends include ways to make it possible to process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels.In addition, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing FCC catalysts at the single particle level.These new characterization tools are able to explain the influence of the harsh FCC processing conditions (e.g. steam) and the presence of various metal poisons (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the crude oil feedstocks on the 3-D structure and accessibility of FCC catalyst materials.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis Group, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG Utrecht, The Netherlands. e.t.c.vogt@uu.nl b.m.weckhuysen@uu.nl.

ABSTRACT
Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is one of the major conversion technologies in the oil refinery industry. FCC currently produces the majority of the world's gasoline, as well as an important fraction of propylene for the polymer industry. In this critical review, we give an overview of the latest trends in this field of research. These trends include ways to make it possible to process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels. After providing some general background of the FCC process, including a short history as well as details on the process, reactor design, chemical reactions involved and catalyst material, we will discuss several trends in FCC catalysis research by focusing on ways to improve the zeolite structure stability, propylene selectivity and the overall catalyst accessibility by (a) the addition of rare earth elements and phosphorus, (b) constructing hierarchical pores systems and (c) the introduction of new zeolite structures. In addition, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing FCC catalysts at the single particle level. These new characterization tools are able to explain the influence of the harsh FCC processing conditions (e.g. steam) and the presence of various metal poisons (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the crude oil feedstocks on the 3-D structure and accessibility of FCC catalyst materials.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus