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Fluid catalytic cracking: recent developments on the grand old lady of zeolite catalysis.

Vogt ET, Weckhuysen BM - Chem Soc Rev (2015)

Bottom Line: These trends include ways to make it possible to process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels.In addition, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing FCC catalysts at the single particle level.These new characterization tools are able to explain the influence of the harsh FCC processing conditions (e.g. steam) and the presence of various metal poisons (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the crude oil feedstocks on the 3-D structure and accessibility of FCC catalyst materials.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis Group, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG Utrecht, The Netherlands. e.t.c.vogt@uu.nl b.m.weckhuysen@uu.nl.

ABSTRACT
Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is one of the major conversion technologies in the oil refinery industry. FCC currently produces the majority of the world's gasoline, as well as an important fraction of propylene for the polymer industry. In this critical review, we give an overview of the latest trends in this field of research. These trends include ways to make it possible to process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels. After providing some general background of the FCC process, including a short history as well as details on the process, reactor design, chemical reactions involved and catalyst material, we will discuss several trends in FCC catalysis research by focusing on ways to improve the zeolite structure stability, propylene selectivity and the overall catalyst accessibility by (a) the addition of rare earth elements and phosphorus, (b) constructing hierarchical pores systems and (c) the introduction of new zeolite structures. In addition, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing FCC catalysts at the single particle level. These new characterization tools are able to explain the influence of the harsh FCC processing conditions (e.g. steam) and the presence of various metal poisons (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the crude oil feedstocks on the 3-D structure and accessibility of FCC catalyst materials.

No MeSH data available.


Comparison of clustering masks for the metal poisons Fe, Ni, V and Ca for an individual E-cat FCC catalyst particle for the correlation pairs Fe/Ni, Fe/V and Fe/Ca as determined with X-ray micro-fluorescence tomography. (Redrawn from ref. 174).
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fig26: Comparison of clustering masks for the metal poisons Fe, Ni, V and Ca for an individual E-cat FCC catalyst particle for the correlation pairs Fe/Ni, Fe/V and Fe/Ca as determined with X-ray micro-fluorescence tomography. (Redrawn from ref. 174).

Mentions: Kalirai et al. have recently used synchrotron-based multi-element XRF tomography with a large array Maia detector to investigate the 3-D distributions of metal poisons (i.e., Fe, Ni, V and Ca) and structural markers (i.e., La and Ti) within individual, intact and industrially deactivated FCC catalyst particles at two different catalytic life-stages.174 This study was performed making use of the recently developed set-up at the PO6 beamline at the Petra III synchrotron (DESY, Hamburg, Germany). It was found that for all metal poisons under study there is a radial concentration gradient where there is a maximum near the surface of the catalyst particle, gradually decreasing towards the particle's interior. Correlation analysis of the metal poisons revealed that Fe, Ni and Ca are highly correlated, particularly at the particle's exterior, where they form a shell around the FCC catalyst particle. V clearly penetrates further into the particle. This is illustrated in Fig. 26. However, no spatial correlation was found for V with La, hinting that V does not specifically interact with the zeolite domains and is present near the Al2O3-based matrix components of the catalyst particle.


Fluid catalytic cracking: recent developments on the grand old lady of zeolite catalysis.

Vogt ET, Weckhuysen BM - Chem Soc Rev (2015)

Comparison of clustering masks for the metal poisons Fe, Ni, V and Ca for an individual E-cat FCC catalyst particle for the correlation pairs Fe/Ni, Fe/V and Fe/Ca as determined with X-ray micro-fluorescence tomography. (Redrawn from ref. 174).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4594121&req=5

fig26: Comparison of clustering masks for the metal poisons Fe, Ni, V and Ca for an individual E-cat FCC catalyst particle for the correlation pairs Fe/Ni, Fe/V and Fe/Ca as determined with X-ray micro-fluorescence tomography. (Redrawn from ref. 174).
Mentions: Kalirai et al. have recently used synchrotron-based multi-element XRF tomography with a large array Maia detector to investigate the 3-D distributions of metal poisons (i.e., Fe, Ni, V and Ca) and structural markers (i.e., La and Ti) within individual, intact and industrially deactivated FCC catalyst particles at two different catalytic life-stages.174 This study was performed making use of the recently developed set-up at the PO6 beamline at the Petra III synchrotron (DESY, Hamburg, Germany). It was found that for all metal poisons under study there is a radial concentration gradient where there is a maximum near the surface of the catalyst particle, gradually decreasing towards the particle's interior. Correlation analysis of the metal poisons revealed that Fe, Ni and Ca are highly correlated, particularly at the particle's exterior, where they form a shell around the FCC catalyst particle. V clearly penetrates further into the particle. This is illustrated in Fig. 26. However, no spatial correlation was found for V with La, hinting that V does not specifically interact with the zeolite domains and is present near the Al2O3-based matrix components of the catalyst particle.

Bottom Line: These trends include ways to make it possible to process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels.In addition, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing FCC catalysts at the single particle level.These new characterization tools are able to explain the influence of the harsh FCC processing conditions (e.g. steam) and the presence of various metal poisons (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the crude oil feedstocks on the 3-D structure and accessibility of FCC catalyst materials.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis Group, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG Utrecht, The Netherlands. e.t.c.vogt@uu.nl b.m.weckhuysen@uu.nl.

ABSTRACT
Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is one of the major conversion technologies in the oil refinery industry. FCC currently produces the majority of the world's gasoline, as well as an important fraction of propylene for the polymer industry. In this critical review, we give an overview of the latest trends in this field of research. These trends include ways to make it possible to process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels. After providing some general background of the FCC process, including a short history as well as details on the process, reactor design, chemical reactions involved and catalyst material, we will discuss several trends in FCC catalysis research by focusing on ways to improve the zeolite structure stability, propylene selectivity and the overall catalyst accessibility by (a) the addition of rare earth elements and phosphorus, (b) constructing hierarchical pores systems and (c) the introduction of new zeolite structures. In addition, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing FCC catalysts at the single particle level. These new characterization tools are able to explain the influence of the harsh FCC processing conditions (e.g. steam) and the presence of various metal poisons (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the crude oil feedstocks on the 3-D structure and accessibility of FCC catalyst materials.

No MeSH data available.