Limits...
Fluid catalytic cracking: recent developments on the grand old lady of zeolite catalysis.

Vogt ET, Weckhuysen BM - Chem Soc Rev (2015)

Bottom Line: These trends include ways to make it possible to process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels.In addition, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing FCC catalysts at the single particle level.These new characterization tools are able to explain the influence of the harsh FCC processing conditions (e.g. steam) and the presence of various metal poisons (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the crude oil feedstocks on the 3-D structure and accessibility of FCC catalyst materials.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis Group, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG Utrecht, The Netherlands. e.t.c.vogt@uu.nl b.m.weckhuysen@uu.nl.

ABSTRACT
Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is one of the major conversion technologies in the oil refinery industry. FCC currently produces the majority of the world's gasoline, as well as an important fraction of propylene for the polymer industry. In this critical review, we give an overview of the latest trends in this field of research. These trends include ways to make it possible to process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels. After providing some general background of the FCC process, including a short history as well as details on the process, reactor design, chemical reactions involved and catalyst material, we will discuss several trends in FCC catalysis research by focusing on ways to improve the zeolite structure stability, propylene selectivity and the overall catalyst accessibility by (a) the addition of rare earth elements and phosphorus, (b) constructing hierarchical pores systems and (c) the introduction of new zeolite structures. In addition, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing FCC catalysts at the single particle level. These new characterization tools are able to explain the influence of the harsh FCC processing conditions (e.g. steam) and the presence of various metal poisons (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the crude oil feedstocks on the 3-D structure and accessibility of FCC catalyst materials.

No MeSH data available.


Ptychographic X-ray nano-tomography data on a model FCC catalyst body consisting of 5% La2O3-exchanged zeolite Y and metakaolin. (a) Vertical section from the middle of the electron-density tomogram. Both materials are indicated by the arrows and could be identified via their different electron density. (b) Some selected axial sections of the phase-contrast tomogram. The colored squares at the top-left corner correspond to the positions of the colored lines in (a). (c–f) 3D rending of metakaolin in blue, zeolite Y in red, and pores in light blue. (g and h) Two orthogonal sections from the middle of the tomogram, some enclosed pores are shown in blue. The scale bars are 1 μm. (Reproduced with permission from ref. 173, Copyright Wiley-VCH, 2015).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4594121&req=5

fig25: Ptychographic X-ray nano-tomography data on a model FCC catalyst body consisting of 5% La2O3-exchanged zeolite Y and metakaolin. (a) Vertical section from the middle of the electron-density tomogram. Both materials are indicated by the arrows and could be identified via their different electron density. (b) Some selected axial sections of the phase-contrast tomogram. The colored squares at the top-left corner correspond to the positions of the colored lines in (a). (c–f) 3D rending of metakaolin in blue, zeolite Y in red, and pores in light blue. (g and h) Two orthogonal sections from the middle of the tomogram, some enclosed pores are shown in blue. The scale bars are 1 μm. (Reproduced with permission from ref. 173, Copyright Wiley-VCH, 2015).

Mentions: Da Silva et al.173 used a combination of phase-contrast X-ray micro-tomography and high-resolution ptychographic X-ray tomography to investigate a model FCC catalyst body, consisting of a mixture of 5% La2O3-exchanged zeolite Y and metakaolin, at the single particle level. The two types of tomographic methods have been performed at the TOMCAT and cSAXS beamlines of the Swiss Light Source. Fig. 25 illustrates the results as obtained with ptychographic X-ray tomography operating at a 3D spatial resolution of 39 nm. Fig. 25a shows a vertical slice of the electron-density tomogram for the FCC catalyst body. The two distinct material phases present can be clearly distinguished, and the upper and some lateral parts that appear brighter indicate some re-deposition of materials during the focused ion beam (FIB) milling of this model FCC catalyst particle.


Fluid catalytic cracking: recent developments on the grand old lady of zeolite catalysis.

Vogt ET, Weckhuysen BM - Chem Soc Rev (2015)

Ptychographic X-ray nano-tomography data on a model FCC catalyst body consisting of 5% La2O3-exchanged zeolite Y and metakaolin. (a) Vertical section from the middle of the electron-density tomogram. Both materials are indicated by the arrows and could be identified via their different electron density. (b) Some selected axial sections of the phase-contrast tomogram. The colored squares at the top-left corner correspond to the positions of the colored lines in (a). (c–f) 3D rending of metakaolin in blue, zeolite Y in red, and pores in light blue. (g and h) Two orthogonal sections from the middle of the tomogram, some enclosed pores are shown in blue. The scale bars are 1 μm. (Reproduced with permission from ref. 173, Copyright Wiley-VCH, 2015).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4594121&req=5

fig25: Ptychographic X-ray nano-tomography data on a model FCC catalyst body consisting of 5% La2O3-exchanged zeolite Y and metakaolin. (a) Vertical section from the middle of the electron-density tomogram. Both materials are indicated by the arrows and could be identified via their different electron density. (b) Some selected axial sections of the phase-contrast tomogram. The colored squares at the top-left corner correspond to the positions of the colored lines in (a). (c–f) 3D rending of metakaolin in blue, zeolite Y in red, and pores in light blue. (g and h) Two orthogonal sections from the middle of the tomogram, some enclosed pores are shown in blue. The scale bars are 1 μm. (Reproduced with permission from ref. 173, Copyright Wiley-VCH, 2015).
Mentions: Da Silva et al.173 used a combination of phase-contrast X-ray micro-tomography and high-resolution ptychographic X-ray tomography to investigate a model FCC catalyst body, consisting of a mixture of 5% La2O3-exchanged zeolite Y and metakaolin, at the single particle level. The two types of tomographic methods have been performed at the TOMCAT and cSAXS beamlines of the Swiss Light Source. Fig. 25 illustrates the results as obtained with ptychographic X-ray tomography operating at a 3D spatial resolution of 39 nm. Fig. 25a shows a vertical slice of the electron-density tomogram for the FCC catalyst body. The two distinct material phases present can be clearly distinguished, and the upper and some lateral parts that appear brighter indicate some re-deposition of materials during the focused ion beam (FIB) milling of this model FCC catalyst particle.

Bottom Line: These trends include ways to make it possible to process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels.In addition, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing FCC catalysts at the single particle level.These new characterization tools are able to explain the influence of the harsh FCC processing conditions (e.g. steam) and the presence of various metal poisons (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the crude oil feedstocks on the 3-D structure and accessibility of FCC catalyst materials.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis Group, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG Utrecht, The Netherlands. e.t.c.vogt@uu.nl b.m.weckhuysen@uu.nl.

ABSTRACT
Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is one of the major conversion technologies in the oil refinery industry. FCC currently produces the majority of the world's gasoline, as well as an important fraction of propylene for the polymer industry. In this critical review, we give an overview of the latest trends in this field of research. These trends include ways to make it possible to process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels. After providing some general background of the FCC process, including a short history as well as details on the process, reactor design, chemical reactions involved and catalyst material, we will discuss several trends in FCC catalysis research by focusing on ways to improve the zeolite structure stability, propylene selectivity and the overall catalyst accessibility by (a) the addition of rare earth elements and phosphorus, (b) constructing hierarchical pores systems and (c) the introduction of new zeolite structures. In addition, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing FCC catalysts at the single particle level. These new characterization tools are able to explain the influence of the harsh FCC processing conditions (e.g. steam) and the presence of various metal poisons (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the crude oil feedstocks on the 3-D structure and accessibility of FCC catalyst materials.

No MeSH data available.