Limits...
Fluid catalytic cracking: recent developments on the grand old lady of zeolite catalysis.

Vogt ET, Weckhuysen BM - Chem Soc Rev (2015)

Bottom Line: These trends include ways to make it possible to process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels.In addition, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing FCC catalysts at the single particle level.These new characterization tools are able to explain the influence of the harsh FCC processing conditions (e.g. steam) and the presence of various metal poisons (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the crude oil feedstocks on the 3-D structure and accessibility of FCC catalyst materials.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis Group, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG Utrecht, The Netherlands. e.t.c.vogt@uu.nl b.m.weckhuysen@uu.nl.

ABSTRACT
Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is one of the major conversion technologies in the oil refinery industry. FCC currently produces the majority of the world's gasoline, as well as an important fraction of propylene for the polymer industry. In this critical review, we give an overview of the latest trends in this field of research. These trends include ways to make it possible to process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels. After providing some general background of the FCC process, including a short history as well as details on the process, reactor design, chemical reactions involved and catalyst material, we will discuss several trends in FCC catalysis research by focusing on ways to improve the zeolite structure stability, propylene selectivity and the overall catalyst accessibility by (a) the addition of rare earth elements and phosphorus, (b) constructing hierarchical pores systems and (c) the introduction of new zeolite structures. In addition, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing FCC catalysts at the single particle level. These new characterization tools are able to explain the influence of the harsh FCC processing conditions (e.g. steam) and the presence of various metal poisons (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the crude oil feedstocks on the 3-D structure and accessibility of FCC catalyst materials.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(a) Single slice of the X-ray micro-tomogram of E-cat particles inside a polyimide tube, which is the circle around the image. The E-cat catalyst particles have a range of shapes and sizes, and some are hollow. Some of them are indicated by the red circles in the image; (b and c) 2D transmission X-ray microscopy images of sections of two E-cat particles showing different sizes of internal voids, which are the dark colored regions in the images; and (d) equivalent diameter of internal voids in the set of E-cat catalyst particles as investigated with X-ray micro-tomography. (Reproduced with permission from ref. 172, Copyright Wiley-VCH, 2014).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4594121&req=5

fig24: (a) Single slice of the X-ray micro-tomogram of E-cat particles inside a polyimide tube, which is the circle around the image. The E-cat catalyst particles have a range of shapes and sizes, and some are hollow. Some of them are indicated by the red circles in the image; (b and c) 2D transmission X-ray microscopy images of sections of two E-cat particles showing different sizes of internal voids, which are the dark colored regions in the images; and (d) equivalent diameter of internal voids in the set of E-cat catalyst particles as investigated with X-ray micro-tomography. (Reproduced with permission from ref. 172, Copyright Wiley-VCH, 2014).

Mentions: Bare and co-workers172 have been studying E-cat catalyst particles at both the ensemble and single particle level making use of a combination of X-ray micro- and nano-tomography as well as μ-XRF and μ-XRD. The X-ray micro- and nano-tomography were performed at respectively beamline 2-BM of the Advanced Photon Source and the X8C beamline of the National Synchrotron Light Source, whereas μ-XRF and μ-XRD data were acquired at beamline ID-D of the Advanced Photon Source. X-ray micro-tomography was used to determine the average size and shape, and their respective distributions, of over 1200 individual E-cat catalyst particles. As shown in Fig. 24a it was found that a large fraction of the E-cat particles contained large internal voids, which certainly affect the particles' density, including their accessibility, and catalytic activity. Fig. 24d shows the equivalent diameter of the internal voids within these E-cat catalyst particles, illustrating that most of them are in the range of 5–15 μm, whereas still several can even exceed the 25 μm size. 2-D transmission X-ray microscopy images of both situations are shown in respectively Fig. 24b and c.


Fluid catalytic cracking: recent developments on the grand old lady of zeolite catalysis.

Vogt ET, Weckhuysen BM - Chem Soc Rev (2015)

(a) Single slice of the X-ray micro-tomogram of E-cat particles inside a polyimide tube, which is the circle around the image. The E-cat catalyst particles have a range of shapes and sizes, and some are hollow. Some of them are indicated by the red circles in the image; (b and c) 2D transmission X-ray microscopy images of sections of two E-cat particles showing different sizes of internal voids, which are the dark colored regions in the images; and (d) equivalent diameter of internal voids in the set of E-cat catalyst particles as investigated with X-ray micro-tomography. (Reproduced with permission from ref. 172, Copyright Wiley-VCH, 2014).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4594121&req=5

fig24: (a) Single slice of the X-ray micro-tomogram of E-cat particles inside a polyimide tube, which is the circle around the image. The E-cat catalyst particles have a range of shapes and sizes, and some are hollow. Some of them are indicated by the red circles in the image; (b and c) 2D transmission X-ray microscopy images of sections of two E-cat particles showing different sizes of internal voids, which are the dark colored regions in the images; and (d) equivalent diameter of internal voids in the set of E-cat catalyst particles as investigated with X-ray micro-tomography. (Reproduced with permission from ref. 172, Copyright Wiley-VCH, 2014).
Mentions: Bare and co-workers172 have been studying E-cat catalyst particles at both the ensemble and single particle level making use of a combination of X-ray micro- and nano-tomography as well as μ-XRF and μ-XRD. The X-ray micro- and nano-tomography were performed at respectively beamline 2-BM of the Advanced Photon Source and the X8C beamline of the National Synchrotron Light Source, whereas μ-XRF and μ-XRD data were acquired at beamline ID-D of the Advanced Photon Source. X-ray micro-tomography was used to determine the average size and shape, and their respective distributions, of over 1200 individual E-cat catalyst particles. As shown in Fig. 24a it was found that a large fraction of the E-cat particles contained large internal voids, which certainly affect the particles' density, including their accessibility, and catalytic activity. Fig. 24d shows the equivalent diameter of the internal voids within these E-cat catalyst particles, illustrating that most of them are in the range of 5–15 μm, whereas still several can even exceed the 25 μm size. 2-D transmission X-ray microscopy images of both situations are shown in respectively Fig. 24b and c.

Bottom Line: These trends include ways to make it possible to process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels.In addition, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing FCC catalysts at the single particle level.These new characterization tools are able to explain the influence of the harsh FCC processing conditions (e.g. steam) and the presence of various metal poisons (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the crude oil feedstocks on the 3-D structure and accessibility of FCC catalyst materials.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis Group, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG Utrecht, The Netherlands. e.t.c.vogt@uu.nl b.m.weckhuysen@uu.nl.

ABSTRACT
Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is one of the major conversion technologies in the oil refinery industry. FCC currently produces the majority of the world's gasoline, as well as an important fraction of propylene for the polymer industry. In this critical review, we give an overview of the latest trends in this field of research. These trends include ways to make it possible to process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels. After providing some general background of the FCC process, including a short history as well as details on the process, reactor design, chemical reactions involved and catalyst material, we will discuss several trends in FCC catalysis research by focusing on ways to improve the zeolite structure stability, propylene selectivity and the overall catalyst accessibility by (a) the addition of rare earth elements and phosphorus, (b) constructing hierarchical pores systems and (c) the introduction of new zeolite structures. In addition, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing FCC catalysts at the single particle level. These new characterization tools are able to explain the influence of the harsh FCC processing conditions (e.g. steam) and the presence of various metal poisons (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the crude oil feedstocks on the 3-D structure and accessibility of FCC catalyst materials.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus