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Fluid catalytic cracking: recent developments on the grand old lady of zeolite catalysis.

Vogt ET, Weckhuysen BM - Chem Soc Rev (2015)

Bottom Line: These trends include ways to make it possible to process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels.In addition, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing FCC catalysts at the single particle level.These new characterization tools are able to explain the influence of the harsh FCC processing conditions (e.g. steam) and the presence of various metal poisons (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the crude oil feedstocks on the 3-D structure and accessibility of FCC catalyst materials.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis Group, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG Utrecht, The Netherlands. e.t.c.vogt@uu.nl b.m.weckhuysen@uu.nl.

ABSTRACT
Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is one of the major conversion technologies in the oil refinery industry. FCC currently produces the majority of the world's gasoline, as well as an important fraction of propylene for the polymer industry. In this critical review, we give an overview of the latest trends in this field of research. These trends include ways to make it possible to process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels. After providing some general background of the FCC process, including a short history as well as details on the process, reactor design, chemical reactions involved and catalyst material, we will discuss several trends in FCC catalysis research by focusing on ways to improve the zeolite structure stability, propylene selectivity and the overall catalyst accessibility by (a) the addition of rare earth elements and phosphorus, (b) constructing hierarchical pores systems and (c) the introduction of new zeolite structures. In addition, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing FCC catalysts at the single particle level. These new characterization tools are able to explain the influence of the harsh FCC processing conditions (e.g. steam) and the presence of various metal poisons (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the crude oil feedstocks on the 3-D structure and accessibility of FCC catalyst materials.

No MeSH data available.


Combined μ-XRF/μ-XANES/μ-XRD data of a single FCC catalyst particle in its fresh state (top) and deactivated state (bottom). Left: μ-XRF 2D chemical maps of Ni (a and g) and V (b and h). Right: μ-XRD 2D chemical maps of zeolite Y (c and i), clay/mullite (d and j), boehmite/γ-alumina (e and k). Far right: 2D reconstructions of the Si/Al ratio for the fresh (f) and deactivated (l) FCC catalyst particle. (Reproduced with permission from ref. 169, Copyright Wiley-VCH, 2013.)
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fig22: Combined μ-XRF/μ-XANES/μ-XRD data of a single FCC catalyst particle in its fresh state (top) and deactivated state (bottom). Left: μ-XRF 2D chemical maps of Ni (a and g) and V (b and h). Right: μ-XRD 2D chemical maps of zeolite Y (c and i), clay/mullite (d and j), boehmite/γ-alumina (e and k). Far right: 2D reconstructions of the Si/Al ratio for the fresh (f) and deactivated (l) FCC catalyst particle. (Reproduced with permission from ref. 169, Copyright Wiley-VCH, 2013.)

Mentions: The 2D spatial resolution is 5 μm. This approach is illustrated in Fig. 22 for a fresh FCC and an E-cat catalyst particle. As one can expect, the fresh FCC catalyst particle did not contain any appreciable amount of Ni and V, to be detected by the μ-XRF method. Interestingly, high quality XRD patterns could be obtained by the μ-XRD approach, which allowed distinguishing between the diffraction patterns of zeolite Y, clay and boehmite. Moreover, the relative intensity of the diffraction peaks, as well as their exact position, can be used to determine the relative contribution of zeolite Y, as well as the Si/Al ratio of the embedded zeolite aggregates.


Fluid catalytic cracking: recent developments on the grand old lady of zeolite catalysis.

Vogt ET, Weckhuysen BM - Chem Soc Rev (2015)

Combined μ-XRF/μ-XANES/μ-XRD data of a single FCC catalyst particle in its fresh state (top) and deactivated state (bottom). Left: μ-XRF 2D chemical maps of Ni (a and g) and V (b and h). Right: μ-XRD 2D chemical maps of zeolite Y (c and i), clay/mullite (d and j), boehmite/γ-alumina (e and k). Far right: 2D reconstructions of the Si/Al ratio for the fresh (f) and deactivated (l) FCC catalyst particle. (Reproduced with permission from ref. 169, Copyright Wiley-VCH, 2013.)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4594121&req=5

fig22: Combined μ-XRF/μ-XANES/μ-XRD data of a single FCC catalyst particle in its fresh state (top) and deactivated state (bottom). Left: μ-XRF 2D chemical maps of Ni (a and g) and V (b and h). Right: μ-XRD 2D chemical maps of zeolite Y (c and i), clay/mullite (d and j), boehmite/γ-alumina (e and k). Far right: 2D reconstructions of the Si/Al ratio for the fresh (f) and deactivated (l) FCC catalyst particle. (Reproduced with permission from ref. 169, Copyright Wiley-VCH, 2013.)
Mentions: The 2D spatial resolution is 5 μm. This approach is illustrated in Fig. 22 for a fresh FCC and an E-cat catalyst particle. As one can expect, the fresh FCC catalyst particle did not contain any appreciable amount of Ni and V, to be detected by the μ-XRF method. Interestingly, high quality XRD patterns could be obtained by the μ-XRD approach, which allowed distinguishing between the diffraction patterns of zeolite Y, clay and boehmite. Moreover, the relative intensity of the diffraction peaks, as well as their exact position, can be used to determine the relative contribution of zeolite Y, as well as the Si/Al ratio of the embedded zeolite aggregates.

Bottom Line: These trends include ways to make it possible to process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels.In addition, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing FCC catalysts at the single particle level.These new characterization tools are able to explain the influence of the harsh FCC processing conditions (e.g. steam) and the presence of various metal poisons (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the crude oil feedstocks on the 3-D structure and accessibility of FCC catalyst materials.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis Group, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG Utrecht, The Netherlands. e.t.c.vogt@uu.nl b.m.weckhuysen@uu.nl.

ABSTRACT
Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is one of the major conversion technologies in the oil refinery industry. FCC currently produces the majority of the world's gasoline, as well as an important fraction of propylene for the polymer industry. In this critical review, we give an overview of the latest trends in this field of research. These trends include ways to make it possible to process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels. After providing some general background of the FCC process, including a short history as well as details on the process, reactor design, chemical reactions involved and catalyst material, we will discuss several trends in FCC catalysis research by focusing on ways to improve the zeolite structure stability, propylene selectivity and the overall catalyst accessibility by (a) the addition of rare earth elements and phosphorus, (b) constructing hierarchical pores systems and (c) the introduction of new zeolite structures. In addition, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing FCC catalysts at the single particle level. These new characterization tools are able to explain the influence of the harsh FCC processing conditions (e.g. steam) and the presence of various metal poisons (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the crude oil feedstocks on the 3-D structure and accessibility of FCC catalyst materials.

No MeSH data available.