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Fluid catalytic cracking: recent developments on the grand old lady of zeolite catalysis.

Vogt ET, Weckhuysen BM - Chem Soc Rev (2015)

Bottom Line: These trends include ways to make it possible to process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels.In addition, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing FCC catalysts at the single particle level.These new characterization tools are able to explain the influence of the harsh FCC processing conditions (e.g. steam) and the presence of various metal poisons (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the crude oil feedstocks on the 3-D structure and accessibility of FCC catalyst materials.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis Group, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG Utrecht, The Netherlands. e.t.c.vogt@uu.nl b.m.weckhuysen@uu.nl.

ABSTRACT
Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is one of the major conversion technologies in the oil refinery industry. FCC currently produces the majority of the world's gasoline, as well as an important fraction of propylene for the polymer industry. In this critical review, we give an overview of the latest trends in this field of research. These trends include ways to make it possible to process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels. After providing some general background of the FCC process, including a short history as well as details on the process, reactor design, chemical reactions involved and catalyst material, we will discuss several trends in FCC catalysis research by focusing on ways to improve the zeolite structure stability, propylene selectivity and the overall catalyst accessibility by (a) the addition of rare earth elements and phosphorus, (b) constructing hierarchical pores systems and (c) the introduction of new zeolite structures. In addition, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing FCC catalysts at the single particle level. These new characterization tools are able to explain the influence of the harsh FCC processing conditions (e.g. steam) and the presence of various metal poisons (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the crude oil feedstocks on the 3-D structure and accessibility of FCC catalyst materials.

No MeSH data available.


Chemical maps of phosphate-activated zeolite clusters, constructed from Al and P K-edge spectra stacks for two different samples. Blue color denotes Al, red denotes P, resolution is 60 × 60 nm. (a-ii) and (b-ii) Al K-edge XANES spectra; (a-iii) and (b-iii) P K-Edge XANES spectra, spectra in (ii) and (iii) colored according to the color in the inset. (Reproduced from ref. 80, Copyright PCCP Owner Societies, 2014).
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fig16: Chemical maps of phosphate-activated zeolite clusters, constructed from Al and P K-edge spectra stacks for two different samples. Blue color denotes Al, red denotes P, resolution is 60 × 60 nm. (a-ii) and (b-ii) Al K-edge XANES spectra; (a-iii) and (b-iii) P K-Edge XANES spectra, spectra in (ii) and (iii) colored according to the color in the inset. (Reproduced from ref. 80, Copyright PCCP Owner Societies, 2014).

Mentions: Upon phosphate treatment, the typical resonances for tetrahedral framework Al seem to decrease in 27Al MAS NMR. This does not necessarily mean that the Al is dislodged from its framework position. By using combined spectroscopy and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), van der Bij et al. observed that there are two different interactions between the phosphate and aluminum (Fig. 16). Extra-framework aluminum reacts with the P-sources to form an extra-framework crystalline ALPO phase. When there is no EFAL to react with, the P reacts with framework Al, seriously distorting its coordination, but without forming EFAL species. These distorted sites were more or less immune to hydrothermal treatment. Excess phosphate was found on the external surface of the zeolite crystals.


Fluid catalytic cracking: recent developments on the grand old lady of zeolite catalysis.

Vogt ET, Weckhuysen BM - Chem Soc Rev (2015)

Chemical maps of phosphate-activated zeolite clusters, constructed from Al and P K-edge spectra stacks for two different samples. Blue color denotes Al, red denotes P, resolution is 60 × 60 nm. (a-ii) and (b-ii) Al K-edge XANES spectra; (a-iii) and (b-iii) P K-Edge XANES spectra, spectra in (ii) and (iii) colored according to the color in the inset. (Reproduced from ref. 80, Copyright PCCP Owner Societies, 2014).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4594121&req=5

fig16: Chemical maps of phosphate-activated zeolite clusters, constructed from Al and P K-edge spectra stacks for two different samples. Blue color denotes Al, red denotes P, resolution is 60 × 60 nm. (a-ii) and (b-ii) Al K-edge XANES spectra; (a-iii) and (b-iii) P K-Edge XANES spectra, spectra in (ii) and (iii) colored according to the color in the inset. (Reproduced from ref. 80, Copyright PCCP Owner Societies, 2014).
Mentions: Upon phosphate treatment, the typical resonances for tetrahedral framework Al seem to decrease in 27Al MAS NMR. This does not necessarily mean that the Al is dislodged from its framework position. By using combined spectroscopy and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), van der Bij et al. observed that there are two different interactions between the phosphate and aluminum (Fig. 16). Extra-framework aluminum reacts with the P-sources to form an extra-framework crystalline ALPO phase. When there is no EFAL to react with, the P reacts with framework Al, seriously distorting its coordination, but without forming EFAL species. These distorted sites were more or less immune to hydrothermal treatment. Excess phosphate was found on the external surface of the zeolite crystals.

Bottom Line: These trends include ways to make it possible to process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels.In addition, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing FCC catalysts at the single particle level.These new characterization tools are able to explain the influence of the harsh FCC processing conditions (e.g. steam) and the presence of various metal poisons (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the crude oil feedstocks on the 3-D structure and accessibility of FCC catalyst materials.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis Group, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG Utrecht, The Netherlands. e.t.c.vogt@uu.nl b.m.weckhuysen@uu.nl.

ABSTRACT
Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is one of the major conversion technologies in the oil refinery industry. FCC currently produces the majority of the world's gasoline, as well as an important fraction of propylene for the polymer industry. In this critical review, we give an overview of the latest trends in this field of research. These trends include ways to make it possible to process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels. After providing some general background of the FCC process, including a short history as well as details on the process, reactor design, chemical reactions involved and catalyst material, we will discuss several trends in FCC catalysis research by focusing on ways to improve the zeolite structure stability, propylene selectivity and the overall catalyst accessibility by (a) the addition of rare earth elements and phosphorus, (b) constructing hierarchical pores systems and (c) the introduction of new zeolite structures. In addition, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing FCC catalysts at the single particle level. These new characterization tools are able to explain the influence of the harsh FCC processing conditions (e.g. steam) and the presence of various metal poisons (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the crude oil feedstocks on the 3-D structure and accessibility of FCC catalyst materials.

No MeSH data available.