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Fluid catalytic cracking: recent developments on the grand old lady of zeolite catalysis.

Vogt ET, Weckhuysen BM - Chem Soc Rev (2015)

Bottom Line: These trends include ways to make it possible to process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels.In addition, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing FCC catalysts at the single particle level.These new characterization tools are able to explain the influence of the harsh FCC processing conditions (e.g. steam) and the presence of various metal poisons (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the crude oil feedstocks on the 3-D structure and accessibility of FCC catalyst materials.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis Group, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG Utrecht, The Netherlands. e.t.c.vogt@uu.nl b.m.weckhuysen@uu.nl.

ABSTRACT
Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is one of the major conversion technologies in the oil refinery industry. FCC currently produces the majority of the world's gasoline, as well as an important fraction of propylene for the polymer industry. In this critical review, we give an overview of the latest trends in this field of research. These trends include ways to make it possible to process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels. After providing some general background of the FCC process, including a short history as well as details on the process, reactor design, chemical reactions involved and catalyst material, we will discuss several trends in FCC catalysis research by focusing on ways to improve the zeolite structure stability, propylene selectivity and the overall catalyst accessibility by (a) the addition of rare earth elements and phosphorus, (b) constructing hierarchical pores systems and (c) the introduction of new zeolite structures. In addition, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing FCC catalysts at the single particle level. These new characterization tools are able to explain the influence of the harsh FCC processing conditions (e.g. steam) and the presence of various metal poisons (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the crude oil feedstocks on the 3-D structure and accessibility of FCC catalyst materials.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

A comparison of the total products from the same runs as depicted in Fig. 4. The graphs are combinations of the GC × GC plot for total liquid product, PIANO analysis of the naphtha fraction, and GC analysis of the gases. Top: Products from a normal cracking run. Bottom: Products with ZSM-5 containing additive added to the catalyst. Color-coding: n-paraffins: dark blue; iso-paraffins: red; naphthenes and olefins: green; naphthenes: purple; olefins: blue; aromatics: orange.
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fig15: A comparison of the total products from the same runs as depicted in Fig. 4. The graphs are combinations of the GC × GC plot for total liquid product, PIANO analysis of the naphtha fraction, and GC analysis of the gases. Top: Products from a normal cracking run. Bottom: Products with ZSM-5 containing additive added to the catalyst. Color-coding: n-paraffins: dark blue; iso-paraffins: red; naphthenes and olefins: green; naphthenes: purple; olefins: blue; aromatics: orange.

Mentions: The limited room in the pore system of zeolite ZSM-5 compared to the supercages in zeolite Y implies that it is much more difficult to accommodate the larger bimolecular transition states. As a result, the secondary cracking of gasoline range molecules in ZSM-5 will produce more olefins. This is illustrated in Fig. 15.


Fluid catalytic cracking: recent developments on the grand old lady of zeolite catalysis.

Vogt ET, Weckhuysen BM - Chem Soc Rev (2015)

A comparison of the total products from the same runs as depicted in Fig. 4. The graphs are combinations of the GC × GC plot for total liquid product, PIANO analysis of the naphtha fraction, and GC analysis of the gases. Top: Products from a normal cracking run. Bottom: Products with ZSM-5 containing additive added to the catalyst. Color-coding: n-paraffins: dark blue; iso-paraffins: red; naphthenes and olefins: green; naphthenes: purple; olefins: blue; aromatics: orange.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4594121&req=5

fig15: A comparison of the total products from the same runs as depicted in Fig. 4. The graphs are combinations of the GC × GC plot for total liquid product, PIANO analysis of the naphtha fraction, and GC analysis of the gases. Top: Products from a normal cracking run. Bottom: Products with ZSM-5 containing additive added to the catalyst. Color-coding: n-paraffins: dark blue; iso-paraffins: red; naphthenes and olefins: green; naphthenes: purple; olefins: blue; aromatics: orange.
Mentions: The limited room in the pore system of zeolite ZSM-5 compared to the supercages in zeolite Y implies that it is much more difficult to accommodate the larger bimolecular transition states. As a result, the secondary cracking of gasoline range molecules in ZSM-5 will produce more olefins. This is illustrated in Fig. 15.

Bottom Line: These trends include ways to make it possible to process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels.In addition, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing FCC catalysts at the single particle level.These new characterization tools are able to explain the influence of the harsh FCC processing conditions (e.g. steam) and the presence of various metal poisons (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the crude oil feedstocks on the 3-D structure and accessibility of FCC catalyst materials.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis Group, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG Utrecht, The Netherlands. e.t.c.vogt@uu.nl b.m.weckhuysen@uu.nl.

ABSTRACT
Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is one of the major conversion technologies in the oil refinery industry. FCC currently produces the majority of the world's gasoline, as well as an important fraction of propylene for the polymer industry. In this critical review, we give an overview of the latest trends in this field of research. These trends include ways to make it possible to process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels. After providing some general background of the FCC process, including a short history as well as details on the process, reactor design, chemical reactions involved and catalyst material, we will discuss several trends in FCC catalysis research by focusing on ways to improve the zeolite structure stability, propylene selectivity and the overall catalyst accessibility by (a) the addition of rare earth elements and phosphorus, (b) constructing hierarchical pores systems and (c) the introduction of new zeolite structures. In addition, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing FCC catalysts at the single particle level. These new characterization tools are able to explain the influence of the harsh FCC processing conditions (e.g. steam) and the presence of various metal poisons (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the crude oil feedstocks on the 3-D structure and accessibility of FCC catalyst materials.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus