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Fluid catalytic cracking: recent developments on the grand old lady of zeolite catalysis.

Vogt ET, Weckhuysen BM - Chem Soc Rev (2015)

Bottom Line: These trends include ways to make it possible to process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels.In addition, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing FCC catalysts at the single particle level.These new characterization tools are able to explain the influence of the harsh FCC processing conditions (e.g. steam) and the presence of various metal poisons (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the crude oil feedstocks on the 3-D structure and accessibility of FCC catalyst materials.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis Group, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG Utrecht, The Netherlands. e.t.c.vogt@uu.nl b.m.weckhuysen@uu.nl.

ABSTRACT
Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is one of the major conversion technologies in the oil refinery industry. FCC currently produces the majority of the world's gasoline, as well as an important fraction of propylene for the polymer industry. In this critical review, we give an overview of the latest trends in this field of research. These trends include ways to make it possible to process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels. After providing some general background of the FCC process, including a short history as well as details on the process, reactor design, chemical reactions involved and catalyst material, we will discuss several trends in FCC catalysis research by focusing on ways to improve the zeolite structure stability, propylene selectivity and the overall catalyst accessibility by (a) the addition of rare earth elements and phosphorus, (b) constructing hierarchical pores systems and (c) the introduction of new zeolite structures. In addition, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing FCC catalysts at the single particle level. These new characterization tools are able to explain the influence of the harsh FCC processing conditions (e.g. steam) and the presence of various metal poisons (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the crude oil feedstocks on the 3-D structure and accessibility of FCC catalyst materials.

No MeSH data available.


(a) Installed capacities for the major conversion processes in refineries worldwide, in million barrels per day. (b) Number of refineries in which major conversion processes are installed. Refineries can have more than one technology installed. Data as of 2013, from ref. 1. Color-coding: fluid catalytic cracking (FCC): blue; hydrocracking: red; coking: green; thermal operations: purple; and resid hydrotreating: light blue.
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fig1: (a) Installed capacities for the major conversion processes in refineries worldwide, in million barrels per day. (b) Number of refineries in which major conversion processes are installed. Refineries can have more than one technology installed. Data as of 2013, from ref. 1. Color-coding: fluid catalytic cracking (FCC): blue; hydrocracking: red; coking: green; thermal operations: purple; and resid hydrotreating: light blue.

Mentions: Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is one of the major conversion technologies in the oil refinery industry and produces the majority of the world's gasoline. The process is in operation at over 300 out of a total of 646 refineries, as of the beginning of 2014. It is important to note that FCC is not the only conversion process used in oil refineries, as there are also e.g. hydrocracking units. Fig. 1 provides an overview of the different conversion processes in use in oil refineries as of the beginning of 2014, expressed as both the number of barrels of crude oil processed per day and the number of refineries utilizing the processes.1 A number of oil refineries use multiple conversion technologies, and some refineries even have more than one FCC unit. Apart from producing gasoline, the FCC unit is also a major producer of propylene and, to a lesser extent, raw materials for petrochemical processes.


Fluid catalytic cracking: recent developments on the grand old lady of zeolite catalysis.

Vogt ET, Weckhuysen BM - Chem Soc Rev (2015)

(a) Installed capacities for the major conversion processes in refineries worldwide, in million barrels per day. (b) Number of refineries in which major conversion processes are installed. Refineries can have more than one technology installed. Data as of 2013, from ref. 1. Color-coding: fluid catalytic cracking (FCC): blue; hydrocracking: red; coking: green; thermal operations: purple; and resid hydrotreating: light blue.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4594121&req=5

fig1: (a) Installed capacities for the major conversion processes in refineries worldwide, in million barrels per day. (b) Number of refineries in which major conversion processes are installed. Refineries can have more than one technology installed. Data as of 2013, from ref. 1. Color-coding: fluid catalytic cracking (FCC): blue; hydrocracking: red; coking: green; thermal operations: purple; and resid hydrotreating: light blue.
Mentions: Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is one of the major conversion technologies in the oil refinery industry and produces the majority of the world's gasoline. The process is in operation at over 300 out of a total of 646 refineries, as of the beginning of 2014. It is important to note that FCC is not the only conversion process used in oil refineries, as there are also e.g. hydrocracking units. Fig. 1 provides an overview of the different conversion processes in use in oil refineries as of the beginning of 2014, expressed as both the number of barrels of crude oil processed per day and the number of refineries utilizing the processes.1 A number of oil refineries use multiple conversion technologies, and some refineries even have more than one FCC unit. Apart from producing gasoline, the FCC unit is also a major producer of propylene and, to a lesser extent, raw materials for petrochemical processes.

Bottom Line: These trends include ways to make it possible to process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels.In addition, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing FCC catalysts at the single particle level.These new characterization tools are able to explain the influence of the harsh FCC processing conditions (e.g. steam) and the presence of various metal poisons (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the crude oil feedstocks on the 3-D structure and accessibility of FCC catalyst materials.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis Group, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG Utrecht, The Netherlands. e.t.c.vogt@uu.nl b.m.weckhuysen@uu.nl.

ABSTRACT
Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is one of the major conversion technologies in the oil refinery industry. FCC currently produces the majority of the world's gasoline, as well as an important fraction of propylene for the polymer industry. In this critical review, we give an overview of the latest trends in this field of research. These trends include ways to make it possible to process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels. After providing some general background of the FCC process, including a short history as well as details on the process, reactor design, chemical reactions involved and catalyst material, we will discuss several trends in FCC catalysis research by focusing on ways to improve the zeolite structure stability, propylene selectivity and the overall catalyst accessibility by (a) the addition of rare earth elements and phosphorus, (b) constructing hierarchical pores systems and (c) the introduction of new zeolite structures. In addition, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing FCC catalysts at the single particle level. These new characterization tools are able to explain the influence of the harsh FCC processing conditions (e.g. steam) and the presence of various metal poisons (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the crude oil feedstocks on the 3-D structure and accessibility of FCC catalyst materials.

No MeSH data available.