Limits...
Synthesis, characterization, and cytotoxicity in human erythrocytes of multifunctional, magnetic, and luminescent nanocrystalline rare earth fluorides.

Grzyb T, Mrówczyńska L, Szczeszak A, Śniadecki Z, Runowski M, Idzikowski B, Lis S - J Nanopart Res (2015)

Bottom Line: The highest luminescence was observed for BaGdF5-based materials.The particles' magnetic characteristics were also preserved for samples in the form of a suspension in distilled water.The cytotoxicity studies against the human erythrocytes indicated that the synthesized nanoparticles are non-toxic because they did not cause the red blood cells shape changes nor did they alter their membrane structure and permeabilization.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Rare Earths, Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89b, 61-614 Poznan, Poland.

ABSTRACT

Multifunctional nanoparticles exhibiting red or green luminescence properties and magnetism were synthesized and thoroughly analyzed. The hydrothermal method was used for the synthesis of Eu(3+)- or Tb(3+)-doped GdF3-, NaGdF4-, and BaGdF5-based nanocrystalline materials. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the samples confirmed the desired compositions of the materials. Transmission electron microscope images revealed the different morphologies of the products, including the nanocrystal sizes, which varied from 12 nm in the case of BaGdF5-based nanoparticles to larger structures with dimensions exceeding 300 nm. All of the samples presented luminescence under ultraviolet irradiation, as well as when the samples were in the form of water colloids. The highest luminescence was observed for BaGdF5-based materials. The obtained nanoparticles exhibited paramagnetism along with probable evidence of superparamagnetic behavior at low temperatures. The particles' magnetic characteristics were also preserved for samples in the form of a suspension in distilled water. The cytotoxicity studies against the human erythrocytes indicated that the synthesized nanoparticles are non-toxic because they did not cause the red blood cells shape changes nor did they alter their membrane structure and permeabilization.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The effect of a PBS (control), b BaGdF5: 2.5 %Ce3+, 2.5 %Tb3+c GdF3: 2.5 %Ce3+, 2.5 %Tb3+ (NaBF4), and d NaGdF4: 2.5 %Ce3+, 2.5 %Tb3+ nanoparticles (5 mg/mL, 1 h, 37 °C) on human erythrocytes, as observed using a scanning electron microscope. The arrows indicate single (white arrows) and aggregated (black arrows) nanoparticles attached to the RBC membrane
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4594090&req=5

Fig6: The effect of a PBS (control), b BaGdF5: 2.5 %Ce3+, 2.5 %Tb3+c GdF3: 2.5 %Ce3+, 2.5 %Tb3+ (NaBF4), and d NaGdF4: 2.5 %Ce3+, 2.5 %Tb3+ nanoparticles (5 mg/mL, 1 h, 37 °C) on human erythrocytes, as observed using a scanning electron microscope. The arrows indicate single (white arrows) and aggregated (black arrows) nanoparticles attached to the RBC membrane

Mentions: The method of cytotoxicity assessment was based on the estimation of the RBC shape changes and measurement of the efflux of hemoglobin from RBCs exposed to nanoparticles, namely, hemolysis. Figure 6 shows the effect of nanoparticles on the RBC shape, as observed using a scanning electron microscope. None of the nanoparticle types used in the study affected the discoid shape of erythrocytes in the concentrations used. Both the control RBCs (Fig. 6a) and the RBCs treated with different nanoparticles (Fig. 6b–d) were discocytes after 1 h incubation (Fig. 7a). Moreover, all nanoparticle types exhibited no effect on the RBC shape after 12 h incubation (Fig. 7b). As shown in Figs. 6b–d, single and aggregated nanoparticles were found to be attached to the RBC membrane. Single nanoparticles were confirmed to have a tendency to aggregate in the aqueous suspension before binding to the cellular membrane (Takenaka et al. 2001; Šimundić et al. 2013). Interestingly, the smaller nanoparticles exhibited higher hemolytic potency compared with their large aggregates (Kim and Shin 2014). The present studies indicate that the analyzed nanoparticles are not toxic, either as single nanocrystals or as nanocrystals aggregates. The RBCs exposed to all types of the analyzed nanoparticles in the concentration range from 0.05 mg/ml to 5 mg/ml did not undergo hemolysis. The percent of hemolysis in the presence of nanoparticles was calculated to be in the range of 0–2 %, as estimated for the control RBC.Fig. 6


Synthesis, characterization, and cytotoxicity in human erythrocytes of multifunctional, magnetic, and luminescent nanocrystalline rare earth fluorides.

Grzyb T, Mrówczyńska L, Szczeszak A, Śniadecki Z, Runowski M, Idzikowski B, Lis S - J Nanopart Res (2015)

The effect of a PBS (control), b BaGdF5: 2.5 %Ce3+, 2.5 %Tb3+c GdF3: 2.5 %Ce3+, 2.5 %Tb3+ (NaBF4), and d NaGdF4: 2.5 %Ce3+, 2.5 %Tb3+ nanoparticles (5 mg/mL, 1 h, 37 °C) on human erythrocytes, as observed using a scanning electron microscope. The arrows indicate single (white arrows) and aggregated (black arrows) nanoparticles attached to the RBC membrane
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4594090&req=5

Fig6: The effect of a PBS (control), b BaGdF5: 2.5 %Ce3+, 2.5 %Tb3+c GdF3: 2.5 %Ce3+, 2.5 %Tb3+ (NaBF4), and d NaGdF4: 2.5 %Ce3+, 2.5 %Tb3+ nanoparticles (5 mg/mL, 1 h, 37 °C) on human erythrocytes, as observed using a scanning electron microscope. The arrows indicate single (white arrows) and aggregated (black arrows) nanoparticles attached to the RBC membrane
Mentions: The method of cytotoxicity assessment was based on the estimation of the RBC shape changes and measurement of the efflux of hemoglobin from RBCs exposed to nanoparticles, namely, hemolysis. Figure 6 shows the effect of nanoparticles on the RBC shape, as observed using a scanning electron microscope. None of the nanoparticle types used in the study affected the discoid shape of erythrocytes in the concentrations used. Both the control RBCs (Fig. 6a) and the RBCs treated with different nanoparticles (Fig. 6b–d) were discocytes after 1 h incubation (Fig. 7a). Moreover, all nanoparticle types exhibited no effect on the RBC shape after 12 h incubation (Fig. 7b). As shown in Figs. 6b–d, single and aggregated nanoparticles were found to be attached to the RBC membrane. Single nanoparticles were confirmed to have a tendency to aggregate in the aqueous suspension before binding to the cellular membrane (Takenaka et al. 2001; Šimundić et al. 2013). Interestingly, the smaller nanoparticles exhibited higher hemolytic potency compared with their large aggregates (Kim and Shin 2014). The present studies indicate that the analyzed nanoparticles are not toxic, either as single nanocrystals or as nanocrystals aggregates. The RBCs exposed to all types of the analyzed nanoparticles in the concentration range from 0.05 mg/ml to 5 mg/ml did not undergo hemolysis. The percent of hemolysis in the presence of nanoparticles was calculated to be in the range of 0–2 %, as estimated for the control RBC.Fig. 6

Bottom Line: The highest luminescence was observed for BaGdF5-based materials.The particles' magnetic characteristics were also preserved for samples in the form of a suspension in distilled water.The cytotoxicity studies against the human erythrocytes indicated that the synthesized nanoparticles are non-toxic because they did not cause the red blood cells shape changes nor did they alter their membrane structure and permeabilization.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Rare Earths, Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89b, 61-614 Poznan, Poland.

ABSTRACT

Multifunctional nanoparticles exhibiting red or green luminescence properties and magnetism were synthesized and thoroughly analyzed. The hydrothermal method was used for the synthesis of Eu(3+)- or Tb(3+)-doped GdF3-, NaGdF4-, and BaGdF5-based nanocrystalline materials. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the samples confirmed the desired compositions of the materials. Transmission electron microscope images revealed the different morphologies of the products, including the nanocrystal sizes, which varied from 12 nm in the case of BaGdF5-based nanoparticles to larger structures with dimensions exceeding 300 nm. All of the samples presented luminescence under ultraviolet irradiation, as well as when the samples were in the form of water colloids. The highest luminescence was observed for BaGdF5-based materials. The obtained nanoparticles exhibited paramagnetism along with probable evidence of superparamagnetic behavior at low temperatures. The particles' magnetic characteristics were also preserved for samples in the form of a suspension in distilled water. The cytotoxicity studies against the human erythrocytes indicated that the synthesized nanoparticles are non-toxic because they did not cause the red blood cells shape changes nor did they alter their membrane structure and permeabilization.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus