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Synthesis, characterization, and cytotoxicity in human erythrocytes of multifunctional, magnetic, and luminescent nanocrystalline rare earth fluorides.

Grzyb T, Mrówczyńska L, Szczeszak A, Śniadecki Z, Runowski M, Idzikowski B, Lis S - J Nanopart Res (2015)

Bottom Line: The highest luminescence was observed for BaGdF5-based materials.The particles' magnetic characteristics were also preserved for samples in the form of a suspension in distilled water.The cytotoxicity studies against the human erythrocytes indicated that the synthesized nanoparticles are non-toxic because they did not cause the red blood cells shape changes nor did they alter their membrane structure and permeabilization.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Rare Earths, Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89b, 61-614 Poznan, Poland.

ABSTRACT

Multifunctional nanoparticles exhibiting red or green luminescence properties and magnetism were synthesized and thoroughly analyzed. The hydrothermal method was used for the synthesis of Eu(3+)- or Tb(3+)-doped GdF3-, NaGdF4-, and BaGdF5-based nanocrystalline materials. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the samples confirmed the desired compositions of the materials. Transmission electron microscope images revealed the different morphologies of the products, including the nanocrystal sizes, which varied from 12 nm in the case of BaGdF5-based nanoparticles to larger structures with dimensions exceeding 300 nm. All of the samples presented luminescence under ultraviolet irradiation, as well as when the samples were in the form of water colloids. The highest luminescence was observed for BaGdF5-based materials. The obtained nanoparticles exhibited paramagnetism along with probable evidence of superparamagnetic behavior at low temperatures. The particles' magnetic characteristics were also preserved for samples in the form of a suspension in distilled water. The cytotoxicity studies against the human erythrocytes indicated that the synthesized nanoparticles are non-toxic because they did not cause the red blood cells shape changes nor did they alter their membrane structure and permeabilization.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Magnetic field dependence of the magnetization M in GdF3:Ce3+,Eu3+ powder, GdF3:Ce3+,Eu3+ colloid, and NaGdF4:Ce3+,Eu3+ powder measured at 2, 10, and 300 K
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Fig5: Magnetic field dependence of the magnetization M in GdF3:Ce3+,Eu3+ powder, GdF3:Ce3+,Eu3+ colloid, and NaGdF4:Ce3+,Eu3+ powder measured at 2, 10, and 300 K

Mentions: The magnetic field dependence of the magnetization for powder samples GdF3:Ce3+,Eu3+; GdF3:Ce3+,Tb3+; NaGdF4:Ce3+,Eu3+; and NaGdF4:Ce3+,Tb3+ was measured at 2, 10, and 300 K. Magnetic isotherms for the GdF3:Ce3+,Eu3+ colloid were obtained at 2 and 300 K. The M(H) curves for different substitutions (Eu3+, Tb3+) are very similar, so GdF3:Ce3+,Tb3+ and NaGdF4:Ce3+,Tb3+ are omitted below for clarity (see Fig. S2 in the Supplement). In Fig. 5, the results for GdF3:Ce3+,Eu3+ and NaGdF4:Ce3+,Eu3+ are presented. In addition, the curves measured at 2 and 300 K for GdF3:Ce3+,Eu3+ colloid are shown. There is no saturation of magnetization up to μ0H = 5 T, and the curves for both samples do not exhibit any hysteresis. At 300 K, all samples can be described as typical paramagnets. The low-temperature M(H) dependence could indicate superparamagnetism, but ZFC and FC M(T) are not observed to deviate from each other, and there is no cusp down to 2 K. This result could indicate an ultralow blocking temperature. The saturation of magnetization reaches 170 Am2/kg. There is also strong diamagnetic influence on M(H) of colloid visible at 300 K, which is connected with the water contribution. As in the case of the M(T) results, the magnetization of the colloid was rescaled to match the maximum value of the powder magnetization. Again, the results are qualitatively very similar to those of GdF3:Ce3+,Eu3+ powder and do not indicate the presence of any interparticle magnetic interactions. The magnetic behavior does not depend on the interparticle distance. Magnetization at 2 T and 300 K was determined to be equal to 2.32 and 2.17 emu/g for GdF3:Ce3+,Eu3+ and NaGdF4:Ce3+,Eu3+, respectively. The measured values are comparable to the value of 2 emu/g reported previously for GdF3 and GdF3:Eu3+, which potentially qualifies them for use as bioseparation nanoparticles (Wong et al. 2009; Wang et al. 2012).Fig. 5


Synthesis, characterization, and cytotoxicity in human erythrocytes of multifunctional, magnetic, and luminescent nanocrystalline rare earth fluorides.

Grzyb T, Mrówczyńska L, Szczeszak A, Śniadecki Z, Runowski M, Idzikowski B, Lis S - J Nanopart Res (2015)

Magnetic field dependence of the magnetization M in GdF3:Ce3+,Eu3+ powder, GdF3:Ce3+,Eu3+ colloid, and NaGdF4:Ce3+,Eu3+ powder measured at 2, 10, and 300 K
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Fig5: Magnetic field dependence of the magnetization M in GdF3:Ce3+,Eu3+ powder, GdF3:Ce3+,Eu3+ colloid, and NaGdF4:Ce3+,Eu3+ powder measured at 2, 10, and 300 K
Mentions: The magnetic field dependence of the magnetization for powder samples GdF3:Ce3+,Eu3+; GdF3:Ce3+,Tb3+; NaGdF4:Ce3+,Eu3+; and NaGdF4:Ce3+,Tb3+ was measured at 2, 10, and 300 K. Magnetic isotherms for the GdF3:Ce3+,Eu3+ colloid were obtained at 2 and 300 K. The M(H) curves for different substitutions (Eu3+, Tb3+) are very similar, so GdF3:Ce3+,Tb3+ and NaGdF4:Ce3+,Tb3+ are omitted below for clarity (see Fig. S2 in the Supplement). In Fig. 5, the results for GdF3:Ce3+,Eu3+ and NaGdF4:Ce3+,Eu3+ are presented. In addition, the curves measured at 2 and 300 K for GdF3:Ce3+,Eu3+ colloid are shown. There is no saturation of magnetization up to μ0H = 5 T, and the curves for both samples do not exhibit any hysteresis. At 300 K, all samples can be described as typical paramagnets. The low-temperature M(H) dependence could indicate superparamagnetism, but ZFC and FC M(T) are not observed to deviate from each other, and there is no cusp down to 2 K. This result could indicate an ultralow blocking temperature. The saturation of magnetization reaches 170 Am2/kg. There is also strong diamagnetic influence on M(H) of colloid visible at 300 K, which is connected with the water contribution. As in the case of the M(T) results, the magnetization of the colloid was rescaled to match the maximum value of the powder magnetization. Again, the results are qualitatively very similar to those of GdF3:Ce3+,Eu3+ powder and do not indicate the presence of any interparticle magnetic interactions. The magnetic behavior does not depend on the interparticle distance. Magnetization at 2 T and 300 K was determined to be equal to 2.32 and 2.17 emu/g for GdF3:Ce3+,Eu3+ and NaGdF4:Ce3+,Eu3+, respectively. The measured values are comparable to the value of 2 emu/g reported previously for GdF3 and GdF3:Eu3+, which potentially qualifies them for use as bioseparation nanoparticles (Wong et al. 2009; Wang et al. 2012).Fig. 5

Bottom Line: The highest luminescence was observed for BaGdF5-based materials.The particles' magnetic characteristics were also preserved for samples in the form of a suspension in distilled water.The cytotoxicity studies against the human erythrocytes indicated that the synthesized nanoparticles are non-toxic because they did not cause the red blood cells shape changes nor did they alter their membrane structure and permeabilization.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Rare Earths, Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89b, 61-614 Poznan, Poland.

ABSTRACT

Multifunctional nanoparticles exhibiting red or green luminescence properties and magnetism were synthesized and thoroughly analyzed. The hydrothermal method was used for the synthesis of Eu(3+)- or Tb(3+)-doped GdF3-, NaGdF4-, and BaGdF5-based nanocrystalline materials. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the samples confirmed the desired compositions of the materials. Transmission electron microscope images revealed the different morphologies of the products, including the nanocrystal sizes, which varied from 12 nm in the case of BaGdF5-based nanoparticles to larger structures with dimensions exceeding 300 nm. All of the samples presented luminescence under ultraviolet irradiation, as well as when the samples were in the form of water colloids. The highest luminescence was observed for BaGdF5-based materials. The obtained nanoparticles exhibited paramagnetism along with probable evidence of superparamagnetic behavior at low temperatures. The particles' magnetic characteristics were also preserved for samples in the form of a suspension in distilled water. The cytotoxicity studies against the human erythrocytes indicated that the synthesized nanoparticles are non-toxic because they did not cause the red blood cells shape changes nor did they alter their membrane structure and permeabilization.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus