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Synthesis, characterization, and cytotoxicity in human erythrocytes of multifunctional, magnetic, and luminescent nanocrystalline rare earth fluorides.

Grzyb T, Mrówczyńska L, Szczeszak A, Śniadecki Z, Runowski M, Idzikowski B, Lis S - J Nanopart Res (2015)

Bottom Line: The highest luminescence was observed for BaGdF5-based materials.The particles' magnetic characteristics were also preserved for samples in the form of a suspension in distilled water.The cytotoxicity studies against the human erythrocytes indicated that the synthesized nanoparticles are non-toxic because they did not cause the red blood cells shape changes nor did they alter their membrane structure and permeabilization.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Rare Earths, Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89b, 61-614 Poznan, Poland.

ABSTRACT

Multifunctional nanoparticles exhibiting red or green luminescence properties and magnetism were synthesized and thoroughly analyzed. The hydrothermal method was used for the synthesis of Eu(3+)- or Tb(3+)-doped GdF3-, NaGdF4-, and BaGdF5-based nanocrystalline materials. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the samples confirmed the desired compositions of the materials. Transmission electron microscope images revealed the different morphologies of the products, including the nanocrystal sizes, which varied from 12 nm in the case of BaGdF5-based nanoparticles to larger structures with dimensions exceeding 300 nm. All of the samples presented luminescence under ultraviolet irradiation, as well as when the samples were in the form of water colloids. The highest luminescence was observed for BaGdF5-based materials. The obtained nanoparticles exhibited paramagnetism along with probable evidence of superparamagnetic behavior at low temperatures. The particles' magnetic characteristics were also preserved for samples in the form of a suspension in distilled water. The cytotoxicity studies against the human erythrocytes indicated that the synthesized nanoparticles are non-toxic because they did not cause the red blood cells shape changes nor did they alter their membrane structure and permeabilization.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Excitation (dashed lines) and emission (solid lines) spectra (a, b), luminescent lifetimes (c, d) and emission intensities (e) of the fluorides obtained, doped with 2.5 %Ce3+,2.5 %Eu3+ and 2.5 %Ce3+,2.5 %Tb3+. For the Eu3+-doped samples, the excitation wavelength used was λex = 253 nm, and the observed emission wavelength was λem = 592 nm; for the Tb3+-doped samples, the excitation wavelength was λex = 253 nm, and the emission wavelength was λem = 543 nm
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Fig3: Excitation (dashed lines) and emission (solid lines) spectra (a, b), luminescent lifetimes (c, d) and emission intensities (e) of the fluorides obtained, doped with 2.5 %Ce3+,2.5 %Eu3+ and 2.5 %Ce3+,2.5 %Tb3+. For the Eu3+-doped samples, the excitation wavelength used was λex = 253 nm, and the observed emission wavelength was λem = 592 nm; for the Tb3+-doped samples, the excitation wavelength was λex = 253 nm, and the emission wavelength was λem = 543 nm

Mentions: The nanomaterials obtained exhibited intensive red luminescence because of the energy transfer (ET) phenomenon that occurred between the dopant ions. In the synthesized compounds, Ce3+ ions acted as luminescence sensitizers for UV radiation (energy donors) and Gd3+ ions acted as energy mediators, which transfer energy to the appropriate Ln3+ activator ion (Eu3+ or Tb3+) (Grzyb et al. 2014). The compounds doped with Eu3+ ions exhibited red luminescence, and the compounds doped with Tb3+ ions exhibited green luminescence. The total emission intensity was dependent on the activator ion used, as well as on the host composition (see Fig. 3e). Generally, the compounds exhibiting green luminescence (doped with Tb3+ ions) had higher total emission intensity in comparison to that of the red nanophosphors (doped with Eu3+ ions). This phenomenon was related to the more efficient luminescence quenching of Eu3+ ions and the more effective energy transfer to the Tb3+ (the energy gap between Gd3+ and Tb3+ ions is smaller than in the case of Gd3+ and Eu3+ ions). In addition, the compounds based on BaGdF5 hosts exhibited the most intense emission, and the phosphors based on NaGdF4 revealed the lowest luminescence intensity. This result occurred because of the impacts of the selected crystal structure, grain size, and crystallinity.Fig. 3


Synthesis, characterization, and cytotoxicity in human erythrocytes of multifunctional, magnetic, and luminescent nanocrystalline rare earth fluorides.

Grzyb T, Mrówczyńska L, Szczeszak A, Śniadecki Z, Runowski M, Idzikowski B, Lis S - J Nanopart Res (2015)

Excitation (dashed lines) and emission (solid lines) spectra (a, b), luminescent lifetimes (c, d) and emission intensities (e) of the fluorides obtained, doped with 2.5 %Ce3+,2.5 %Eu3+ and 2.5 %Ce3+,2.5 %Tb3+. For the Eu3+-doped samples, the excitation wavelength used was λex = 253 nm, and the observed emission wavelength was λem = 592 nm; for the Tb3+-doped samples, the excitation wavelength was λex = 253 nm, and the emission wavelength was λem = 543 nm
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4594090&req=5

Fig3: Excitation (dashed lines) and emission (solid lines) spectra (a, b), luminescent lifetimes (c, d) and emission intensities (e) of the fluorides obtained, doped with 2.5 %Ce3+,2.5 %Eu3+ and 2.5 %Ce3+,2.5 %Tb3+. For the Eu3+-doped samples, the excitation wavelength used was λex = 253 nm, and the observed emission wavelength was λem = 592 nm; for the Tb3+-doped samples, the excitation wavelength was λex = 253 nm, and the emission wavelength was λem = 543 nm
Mentions: The nanomaterials obtained exhibited intensive red luminescence because of the energy transfer (ET) phenomenon that occurred between the dopant ions. In the synthesized compounds, Ce3+ ions acted as luminescence sensitizers for UV radiation (energy donors) and Gd3+ ions acted as energy mediators, which transfer energy to the appropriate Ln3+ activator ion (Eu3+ or Tb3+) (Grzyb et al. 2014). The compounds doped with Eu3+ ions exhibited red luminescence, and the compounds doped with Tb3+ ions exhibited green luminescence. The total emission intensity was dependent on the activator ion used, as well as on the host composition (see Fig. 3e). Generally, the compounds exhibiting green luminescence (doped with Tb3+ ions) had higher total emission intensity in comparison to that of the red nanophosphors (doped with Eu3+ ions). This phenomenon was related to the more efficient luminescence quenching of Eu3+ ions and the more effective energy transfer to the Tb3+ (the energy gap between Gd3+ and Tb3+ ions is smaller than in the case of Gd3+ and Eu3+ ions). In addition, the compounds based on BaGdF5 hosts exhibited the most intense emission, and the phosphors based on NaGdF4 revealed the lowest luminescence intensity. This result occurred because of the impacts of the selected crystal structure, grain size, and crystallinity.Fig. 3

Bottom Line: The highest luminescence was observed for BaGdF5-based materials.The particles' magnetic characteristics were also preserved for samples in the form of a suspension in distilled water.The cytotoxicity studies against the human erythrocytes indicated that the synthesized nanoparticles are non-toxic because they did not cause the red blood cells shape changes nor did they alter their membrane structure and permeabilization.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Rare Earths, Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89b, 61-614 Poznan, Poland.

ABSTRACT

Multifunctional nanoparticles exhibiting red or green luminescence properties and magnetism were synthesized and thoroughly analyzed. The hydrothermal method was used for the synthesis of Eu(3+)- or Tb(3+)-doped GdF3-, NaGdF4-, and BaGdF5-based nanocrystalline materials. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the samples confirmed the desired compositions of the materials. Transmission electron microscope images revealed the different morphologies of the products, including the nanocrystal sizes, which varied from 12 nm in the case of BaGdF5-based nanoparticles to larger structures with dimensions exceeding 300 nm. All of the samples presented luminescence under ultraviolet irradiation, as well as when the samples were in the form of water colloids. The highest luminescence was observed for BaGdF5-based materials. The obtained nanoparticles exhibited paramagnetism along with probable evidence of superparamagnetic behavior at low temperatures. The particles' magnetic characteristics were also preserved for samples in the form of a suspension in distilled water. The cytotoxicity studies against the human erythrocytes indicated that the synthesized nanoparticles are non-toxic because they did not cause the red blood cells shape changes nor did they alter their membrane structure and permeabilization.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus