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Synthesis, characterization, and cytotoxicity in human erythrocytes of multifunctional, magnetic, and luminescent nanocrystalline rare earth fluorides.

Grzyb T, Mrówczyńska L, Szczeszak A, Śniadecki Z, Runowski M, Idzikowski B, Lis S - J Nanopart Res (2015)

Bottom Line: The highest luminescence was observed for BaGdF5-based materials.The particles' magnetic characteristics were also preserved for samples in the form of a suspension in distilled water.The cytotoxicity studies against the human erythrocytes indicated that the synthesized nanoparticles are non-toxic because they did not cause the red blood cells shape changes nor did they alter their membrane structure and permeabilization.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Rare Earths, Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89b, 61-614 Poznan, Poland.

ABSTRACT

Multifunctional nanoparticles exhibiting red or green luminescence properties and magnetism were synthesized and thoroughly analyzed. The hydrothermal method was used for the synthesis of Eu(3+)- or Tb(3+)-doped GdF3-, NaGdF4-, and BaGdF5-based nanocrystalline materials. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the samples confirmed the desired compositions of the materials. Transmission electron microscope images revealed the different morphologies of the products, including the nanocrystal sizes, which varied from 12 nm in the case of BaGdF5-based nanoparticles to larger structures with dimensions exceeding 300 nm. All of the samples presented luminescence under ultraviolet irradiation, as well as when the samples were in the form of water colloids. The highest luminescence was observed for BaGdF5-based materials. The obtained nanoparticles exhibited paramagnetism along with probable evidence of superparamagnetic behavior at low temperatures. The particles' magnetic characteristics were also preserved for samples in the form of a suspension in distilled water. The cytotoxicity studies against the human erythrocytes indicated that the synthesized nanoparticles are non-toxic because they did not cause the red blood cells shape changes nor did they alter their membrane structure and permeabilization.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

XRD patterns of the BaGdF5, NaGdF4, and GdF3 doped with 2.5 % Ce3+ and either 2.5 % Tb3+ or 2.5 % Eu3+ ions synthesized by hydrothermal method at 180 °C for 2 h
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Fig1: XRD patterns of the BaGdF5, NaGdF4, and GdF3 doped with 2.5 % Ce3+ and either 2.5 % Tb3+ or 2.5 % Eu3+ ions synthesized by hydrothermal method at 180 °C for 2 h

Mentions: The structural analysis of the prepared rare earth fluorides was performed using XRD measurements. Figure 1 presents XRD patterns of the as-prepared BaGdF5, NaGdF4, and GdF3 nanocrystals doped with either Ce3+ and Tb3+ ions or Ce3+ and Eu3+ ions. Diffraction patterns for each material exhibit peak broadening, which indicates the nanodimensional size of the crystallites. The most broadened lines are observed for the Ln3+-doped BaGdF5 samples, which correspond to the smallest average crystallite size among the synthesized materials and are consistent with the TEM images (Fig. 2g, g1, h, and h1). For the Ln3+-doped GdF3 nanocrystals, all the diffraction peaks clearly demonstrate the presence of orthorhombic GdF3 crystal structure, and the Pnma space group corresponds to JCPDS No. 12-0788. The most intense reflex for the GdF3 samples is (020), which is different in relation to reference data; this difference is an effect of the crystal growth into the preferential orientation (Li et al. 2011). The use of NaBF4 has not strongly influenced the structure and morphology of the obtained nanocrystallites. Sodium gadolinium fluoride, NaGdF4, can exist in two phases: cubic (α-phase) and hexagonal (β-phase) (Naccache et al. 2009). The XRD patterns of the Ln3+-doped NaGdF4 exhibit diffraction peaks that correspond to the presence of the pure hexagonal phase with a space group (JCPDS No. 27-0699). The diffraction peaks recorded for the BaGdF5 nanocrystals can be indexed as cubic phase and space group Fm3 m (JCPDS No. 24-0098) (Yang et al. 2011).Fig. 1


Synthesis, characterization, and cytotoxicity in human erythrocytes of multifunctional, magnetic, and luminescent nanocrystalline rare earth fluorides.

Grzyb T, Mrówczyńska L, Szczeszak A, Śniadecki Z, Runowski M, Idzikowski B, Lis S - J Nanopart Res (2015)

XRD patterns of the BaGdF5, NaGdF4, and GdF3 doped with 2.5 % Ce3+ and either 2.5 % Tb3+ or 2.5 % Eu3+ ions synthesized by hydrothermal method at 180 °C for 2 h
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4594090&req=5

Fig1: XRD patterns of the BaGdF5, NaGdF4, and GdF3 doped with 2.5 % Ce3+ and either 2.5 % Tb3+ or 2.5 % Eu3+ ions synthesized by hydrothermal method at 180 °C for 2 h
Mentions: The structural analysis of the prepared rare earth fluorides was performed using XRD measurements. Figure 1 presents XRD patterns of the as-prepared BaGdF5, NaGdF4, and GdF3 nanocrystals doped with either Ce3+ and Tb3+ ions or Ce3+ and Eu3+ ions. Diffraction patterns for each material exhibit peak broadening, which indicates the nanodimensional size of the crystallites. The most broadened lines are observed for the Ln3+-doped BaGdF5 samples, which correspond to the smallest average crystallite size among the synthesized materials and are consistent with the TEM images (Fig. 2g, g1, h, and h1). For the Ln3+-doped GdF3 nanocrystals, all the diffraction peaks clearly demonstrate the presence of orthorhombic GdF3 crystal structure, and the Pnma space group corresponds to JCPDS No. 12-0788. The most intense reflex for the GdF3 samples is (020), which is different in relation to reference data; this difference is an effect of the crystal growth into the preferential orientation (Li et al. 2011). The use of NaBF4 has not strongly influenced the structure and morphology of the obtained nanocrystallites. Sodium gadolinium fluoride, NaGdF4, can exist in two phases: cubic (α-phase) and hexagonal (β-phase) (Naccache et al. 2009). The XRD patterns of the Ln3+-doped NaGdF4 exhibit diffraction peaks that correspond to the presence of the pure hexagonal phase with a space group (JCPDS No. 27-0699). The diffraction peaks recorded for the BaGdF5 nanocrystals can be indexed as cubic phase and space group Fm3 m (JCPDS No. 24-0098) (Yang et al. 2011).Fig. 1

Bottom Line: The highest luminescence was observed for BaGdF5-based materials.The particles' magnetic characteristics were also preserved for samples in the form of a suspension in distilled water.The cytotoxicity studies against the human erythrocytes indicated that the synthesized nanoparticles are non-toxic because they did not cause the red blood cells shape changes nor did they alter their membrane structure and permeabilization.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Rare Earths, Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89b, 61-614 Poznan, Poland.

ABSTRACT

Multifunctional nanoparticles exhibiting red or green luminescence properties and magnetism were synthesized and thoroughly analyzed. The hydrothermal method was used for the synthesis of Eu(3+)- or Tb(3+)-doped GdF3-, NaGdF4-, and BaGdF5-based nanocrystalline materials. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the samples confirmed the desired compositions of the materials. Transmission electron microscope images revealed the different morphologies of the products, including the nanocrystal sizes, which varied from 12 nm in the case of BaGdF5-based nanoparticles to larger structures with dimensions exceeding 300 nm. All of the samples presented luminescence under ultraviolet irradiation, as well as when the samples were in the form of water colloids. The highest luminescence was observed for BaGdF5-based materials. The obtained nanoparticles exhibited paramagnetism along with probable evidence of superparamagnetic behavior at low temperatures. The particles' magnetic characteristics were also preserved for samples in the form of a suspension in distilled water. The cytotoxicity studies against the human erythrocytes indicated that the synthesized nanoparticles are non-toxic because they did not cause the red blood cells shape changes nor did they alter their membrane structure and permeabilization.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus