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Spatial and Short-Temporal Variability of δ(13)C and δ(15)N and Water-Use Efficiency in Pine Needles of the Three Forests Along the Most Industrialized Part of Poland.

Sensuła BM - Water Air Soil Pollut (2015)

Bottom Line: Diffuse air pollution caused the variation in δ (13)C, δ(15)N, and iWUE dependent on type of emitter, the localization in the space (distance and direction) from factories and some local effect of other human activities.The complex short-term variation analysis can be helpful to distinguish isotopic fractionation, which is not an effect explainable by climatic conditions but by the anthropogenic effect.Between 2012 and 2014, an increase in iWUE is observed at leaf level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Physics-Center for Science and Education, Silesian University of Technology, Konarskiego 22B, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland.

ABSTRACT

In this study, stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in the samples of pine needles collected in 2013 and 2014 from heavily urbanized area in close proximity to point-source pollution emitters, such as a heat and power plant, nitrogen plant, and steelworks in Silesia (Poland), were analyzed as bio-indicators of contemporary environmental changes. The carbon isotope discrimination has been proposed as a method for evaluating water-use efficiency. The measurement of carbon and nitrogen isotopes was carried out using the continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer. The isotope ratio mass spectrometer allows the precise measurement of mixtures of naturally occurring isotopes. The δ(15)N values were calibrated relative to the NO-3 and USGS34 international standards, whereas the δ(13)C values were calibrated relative to the C-3 and C-5 international standards. The strong year-to-year correlations between the δ(13)C in different sampling sites, and also the inter-annual correlation of δ(15)N values in the pine needles at each of the investigated sampling sites confirm that the measured δ(13)C and δ(15)N and also intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) trends are representative of the sampling site. Diffuse air pollution caused the variation in δ (13)C, δ(15)N, and iWUE dependent on type of emitter, the localization in the space (distance and direction) from factories and some local effect of other human activities. The complex short-term variation analysis can be helpful to distinguish isotopic fractionation, which is not an effect explainable by climatic conditions but by the anthropogenic effect. Between 2012 and 2014, an increase in iWUE is observed at leaf level.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Combinations of δ13C and δ15N for pine needles from all the sampling sites, sampled in 2013 (winter, 12 samples and summer, 16 samples) and 2014 (summer, 16 samples)
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Fig4: Combinations of δ13C and δ15N for pine needles from all the sampling sites, sampled in 2013 (winter, 12 samples and summer, 16 samples) and 2014 (summer, 16 samples)

Mentions: The strong year-to-year correlation between the δ13C values in the needles of pine at each of the studied areas and sampling sites confirm that the measured δ13C, δ15N, and iWUE trends are representative of the sampling site. In addition, the δ13C inter-sampling site patterns of needle series are similar for all sites (r > 0.65, p < 0.05 for δ13C, r ≥ 0.84, p < 0.05 for δ15N, and r ≥ 0.62, p < 0.05 for iWUE, respectively). Additionally, the strong inter-annual correlation of the δ15N values at each of the studied areas and sampling sites confirm that the measured δ15N trends are representative of the sampling sites. Combinations of δ13C and δ15N for pine needles from all the sampling sites, sampled in 2013 (winter, 12 samples and summer, 16 samples) and 2014 (summer, 16 samples) are illustrated (Fig. 4). A significant correlation between δ13C and δ15N (r = 0.82) was noted between δ13C and δ15N in the pine needle samples created in 2012 and collected in the winter in 2013. It is possible that it is connected with the vegetation period that begins in Poland at the end of March or beginning of April and finishes in September. Collecting samples in July facilitates the collection of very young “fresh” needles. The sensitivity of pine on air pollution is also connected with pine physiology.Fig. 4


Spatial and Short-Temporal Variability of δ(13)C and δ(15)N and Water-Use Efficiency in Pine Needles of the Three Forests Along the Most Industrialized Part of Poland.

Sensuła BM - Water Air Soil Pollut (2015)

Combinations of δ13C and δ15N for pine needles from all the sampling sites, sampled in 2013 (winter, 12 samples and summer, 16 samples) and 2014 (summer, 16 samples)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4594085&req=5

Fig4: Combinations of δ13C and δ15N for pine needles from all the sampling sites, sampled in 2013 (winter, 12 samples and summer, 16 samples) and 2014 (summer, 16 samples)
Mentions: The strong year-to-year correlation between the δ13C values in the needles of pine at each of the studied areas and sampling sites confirm that the measured δ13C, δ15N, and iWUE trends are representative of the sampling site. In addition, the δ13C inter-sampling site patterns of needle series are similar for all sites (r > 0.65, p < 0.05 for δ13C, r ≥ 0.84, p < 0.05 for δ15N, and r ≥ 0.62, p < 0.05 for iWUE, respectively). Additionally, the strong inter-annual correlation of the δ15N values at each of the studied areas and sampling sites confirm that the measured δ15N trends are representative of the sampling sites. Combinations of δ13C and δ15N for pine needles from all the sampling sites, sampled in 2013 (winter, 12 samples and summer, 16 samples) and 2014 (summer, 16 samples) are illustrated (Fig. 4). A significant correlation between δ13C and δ15N (r = 0.82) was noted between δ13C and δ15N in the pine needle samples created in 2012 and collected in the winter in 2013. It is possible that it is connected with the vegetation period that begins in Poland at the end of March or beginning of April and finishes in September. Collecting samples in July facilitates the collection of very young “fresh” needles. The sensitivity of pine on air pollution is also connected with pine physiology.Fig. 4

Bottom Line: Diffuse air pollution caused the variation in δ (13)C, δ(15)N, and iWUE dependent on type of emitter, the localization in the space (distance and direction) from factories and some local effect of other human activities.The complex short-term variation analysis can be helpful to distinguish isotopic fractionation, which is not an effect explainable by climatic conditions but by the anthropogenic effect.Between 2012 and 2014, an increase in iWUE is observed at leaf level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Physics-Center for Science and Education, Silesian University of Technology, Konarskiego 22B, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland.

ABSTRACT

In this study, stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in the samples of pine needles collected in 2013 and 2014 from heavily urbanized area in close proximity to point-source pollution emitters, such as a heat and power plant, nitrogen plant, and steelworks in Silesia (Poland), were analyzed as bio-indicators of contemporary environmental changes. The carbon isotope discrimination has been proposed as a method for evaluating water-use efficiency. The measurement of carbon and nitrogen isotopes was carried out using the continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer. The isotope ratio mass spectrometer allows the precise measurement of mixtures of naturally occurring isotopes. The δ(15)N values were calibrated relative to the NO-3 and USGS34 international standards, whereas the δ(13)C values were calibrated relative to the C-3 and C-5 international standards. The strong year-to-year correlations between the δ(13)C in different sampling sites, and also the inter-annual correlation of δ(15)N values in the pine needles at each of the investigated sampling sites confirm that the measured δ(13)C and δ(15)N and also intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) trends are representative of the sampling site. Diffuse air pollution caused the variation in δ (13)C, δ(15)N, and iWUE dependent on type of emitter, the localization in the space (distance and direction) from factories and some local effect of other human activities. The complex short-term variation analysis can be helpful to distinguish isotopic fractionation, which is not an effect explainable by climatic conditions but by the anthropogenic effect. Between 2012 and 2014, an increase in iWUE is observed at leaf level.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus