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Spatial and Short-Temporal Variability of δ(13)C and δ(15)N and Water-Use Efficiency in Pine Needles of the Three Forests Along the Most Industrialized Part of Poland.

Sensuła BM - Water Air Soil Pollut (2015)

Bottom Line: Diffuse air pollution caused the variation in δ (13)C, δ(15)N, and iWUE dependent on type of emitter, the localization in the space (distance and direction) from factories and some local effect of other human activities.The complex short-term variation analysis can be helpful to distinguish isotopic fractionation, which is not an effect explainable by climatic conditions but by the anthropogenic effect.Between 2012 and 2014, an increase in iWUE is observed at leaf level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Physics-Center for Science and Education, Silesian University of Technology, Konarskiego 22B, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland.

ABSTRACT

In this study, stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in the samples of pine needles collected in 2013 and 2014 from heavily urbanized area in close proximity to point-source pollution emitters, such as a heat and power plant, nitrogen plant, and steelworks in Silesia (Poland), were analyzed as bio-indicators of contemporary environmental changes. The carbon isotope discrimination has been proposed as a method for evaluating water-use efficiency. The measurement of carbon and nitrogen isotopes was carried out using the continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer. The isotope ratio mass spectrometer allows the precise measurement of mixtures of naturally occurring isotopes. The δ(15)N values were calibrated relative to the NO-3 and USGS34 international standards, whereas the δ(13)C values were calibrated relative to the C-3 and C-5 international standards. The strong year-to-year correlations between the δ(13)C in different sampling sites, and also the inter-annual correlation of δ(15)N values in the pine needles at each of the investigated sampling sites confirm that the measured δ(13)C and δ(15)N and also intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) trends are representative of the sampling site. Diffuse air pollution caused the variation in δ (13)C, δ(15)N, and iWUE dependent on type of emitter, the localization in the space (distance and direction) from factories and some local effect of other human activities. The complex short-term variation analysis can be helpful to distinguish isotopic fractionation, which is not an effect explainable by climatic conditions but by the anthropogenic effect. Between 2012 and 2014, an increase in iWUE is observed at leaf level.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Sampling sites near the nitrogen power plant in Kędzierzyn Koźle (KK), combined heat and power plant in Łaziska (LA), steel mill in Dąbrowa Górnicza (HK), and in a comparative site in Olesno (OL)
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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Fig1: Sampling sites near the nitrogen power plant in Kędzierzyn Koźle (KK), combined heat and power plant in Łaziska (LA), steel mill in Dąbrowa Górnicza (HK), and in a comparative site in Olesno (OL)

Mentions: The three selected sites (Fig. 1; Table 1) were located along the southern part of Poland, in the region which is one of the most polluted regions in Poland and in Europe, highly industrialized over the years and highly populated.Fig. 1


Spatial and Short-Temporal Variability of δ(13)C and δ(15)N and Water-Use Efficiency in Pine Needles of the Three Forests Along the Most Industrialized Part of Poland.

Sensuła BM - Water Air Soil Pollut (2015)

Sampling sites near the nitrogen power plant in Kędzierzyn Koźle (KK), combined heat and power plant in Łaziska (LA), steel mill in Dąbrowa Górnicza (HK), and in a comparative site in Olesno (OL)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4594085&req=5

Fig1: Sampling sites near the nitrogen power plant in Kędzierzyn Koźle (KK), combined heat and power plant in Łaziska (LA), steel mill in Dąbrowa Górnicza (HK), and in a comparative site in Olesno (OL)
Mentions: The three selected sites (Fig. 1; Table 1) were located along the southern part of Poland, in the region which is one of the most polluted regions in Poland and in Europe, highly industrialized over the years and highly populated.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Diffuse air pollution caused the variation in δ (13)C, δ(15)N, and iWUE dependent on type of emitter, the localization in the space (distance and direction) from factories and some local effect of other human activities.The complex short-term variation analysis can be helpful to distinguish isotopic fractionation, which is not an effect explainable by climatic conditions but by the anthropogenic effect.Between 2012 and 2014, an increase in iWUE is observed at leaf level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Physics-Center for Science and Education, Silesian University of Technology, Konarskiego 22B, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland.

ABSTRACT

In this study, stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in the samples of pine needles collected in 2013 and 2014 from heavily urbanized area in close proximity to point-source pollution emitters, such as a heat and power plant, nitrogen plant, and steelworks in Silesia (Poland), were analyzed as bio-indicators of contemporary environmental changes. The carbon isotope discrimination has been proposed as a method for evaluating water-use efficiency. The measurement of carbon and nitrogen isotopes was carried out using the continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer. The isotope ratio mass spectrometer allows the precise measurement of mixtures of naturally occurring isotopes. The δ(15)N values were calibrated relative to the NO-3 and USGS34 international standards, whereas the δ(13)C values were calibrated relative to the C-3 and C-5 international standards. The strong year-to-year correlations between the δ(13)C in different sampling sites, and also the inter-annual correlation of δ(15)N values in the pine needles at each of the investigated sampling sites confirm that the measured δ(13)C and δ(15)N and also intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) trends are representative of the sampling site. Diffuse air pollution caused the variation in δ (13)C, δ(15)N, and iWUE dependent on type of emitter, the localization in the space (distance and direction) from factories and some local effect of other human activities. The complex short-term variation analysis can be helpful to distinguish isotopic fractionation, which is not an effect explainable by climatic conditions but by the anthropogenic effect. Between 2012 and 2014, an increase in iWUE is observed at leaf level.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus