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Flight behavior of foraging and overwintering brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

Lee DH, Leskey TC - Bull. Entomol. Res. (2015)

Bottom Line: The incidence of take off by H. halys was significantly affected by the wind speed; when provided with still air conditions, 83% of individuals took off, but the rates decreased to <10% when wind speed was increased to or above 0.75 m s-1.The incidence of take off by H. halys was significantly affected by ambient temperature and light intensity in the field, whereas relative humidity and insect sex did not.The implications of H. halys flight biology are discussed in the context of developing monitoring and management programs for this invasive species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Life Sciences,Gachon University,1342 Seongnamdaero,Sujeong-gu,Seongnam-si,Gyeonggi-do,Korea.

ABSTRACT
Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), is a highly polyphagous invasive species attacking both cultivated and wild plants increasing its threat to ecosystems as a global pest. However, dispersal biology of this invasive species is not well understood. This study evaluated the flight capacity and behavior of H. halys under laboratory, semi-field, and field conditions. Flight mills were used to measure the baseline flight capacity of adults collected year round from the field and included both foraging and overwintering populations. The effects of abiotic conditions such as wind speed and temperatures on the free flight parameters of H. halys were evaluated under semi-field and field conditions. The mean flight distances over a 22-h period were 2442 and 2083 m for male and female, respectively. Most individuals (89%) flew <5 km, though some flew much further with a maximum flight distance observed of 117 km. Flight distances by H. halys increased after emergence from overwintering sites in spring and reached their highest point in June. The incidence of take off by H. halys was significantly affected by the wind speed; when provided with still air conditions, 83% of individuals took off, but the rates decreased to <10% when wind speed was increased to or above 0.75 m s-1. The incidence of take off by H. halys was significantly affected by ambient temperature and light intensity in the field, whereas relative humidity and insect sex did not. When the temperature was at 10-15°C, 3% of individuals took off, but the proportion of H. halys taking flight increased to 61, 84, and 87% at 15-20, 20-25, and 25-30°C, respectively. In the field, prevailing flight direction was biased toward the opposite direction of the sun's position, especially in the morning. The implications of H. halys flight biology are discussed in the context of developing monitoring and management programs for this invasive species.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Prevailing flight directions of Halymorpha halys observed in the field conditions at (a) 8:00–10:00, (b) 10:00–12:00, (c) 12:00–14:00, (d) 14:00–16:00, and (e) 16:00–18:00. Arrow indicates the north.
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fig06: Prevailing flight directions of Halymorpha halys observed in the field conditions at (a) 8:00–10:00, (b) 10:00–12:00, (c) 12:00–14:00, (d) 14:00–16:00, and (e) 16:00–18:00. Arrow indicates the north.

Mentions: The proportion of H. halys taking flight was significantly affected by ambient temperature and light intensity in the field (P < 0.05) (table 1). No effects were observed from relative humidity, date of observation or sex (table 1). Temperature was the most significant factor (P < 0.0001) (table 1), and thus the proportion of H. halys taking flight is presented in fig. 5 across the temperature range observed in the field. When the temperature was at 10–15°C in the field, 3% of H. halys took off from the bamboo dowel. However, the proportion of H. halys taking flight increased 20 times, reaching at 61%, at the temperature range of 15–20°C. At higher temperature ranges, the proportions of H. halys taking flight were 84 and 87% at 20–25 and 25–30°C, respectively. The prevailing direction of H. halys flight was significantly affected by the time of day (Fisher's exact test, P < 0.0001) (fig. 6). In general, the prevailing flight direction was biased toward the opposite directions of the sun's position in the morning; though this pattern became less conspicuous in the afternoon.Fig. 5.


Flight behavior of foraging and overwintering brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

Lee DH, Leskey TC - Bull. Entomol. Res. (2015)

Prevailing flight directions of Halymorpha halys observed in the field conditions at (a) 8:00–10:00, (b) 10:00–12:00, (c) 12:00–14:00, (d) 14:00–16:00, and (e) 16:00–18:00. Arrow indicates the north.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4594055&req=5

fig06: Prevailing flight directions of Halymorpha halys observed in the field conditions at (a) 8:00–10:00, (b) 10:00–12:00, (c) 12:00–14:00, (d) 14:00–16:00, and (e) 16:00–18:00. Arrow indicates the north.
Mentions: The proportion of H. halys taking flight was significantly affected by ambient temperature and light intensity in the field (P < 0.05) (table 1). No effects were observed from relative humidity, date of observation or sex (table 1). Temperature was the most significant factor (P < 0.0001) (table 1), and thus the proportion of H. halys taking flight is presented in fig. 5 across the temperature range observed in the field. When the temperature was at 10–15°C in the field, 3% of H. halys took off from the bamboo dowel. However, the proportion of H. halys taking flight increased 20 times, reaching at 61%, at the temperature range of 15–20°C. At higher temperature ranges, the proportions of H. halys taking flight were 84 and 87% at 20–25 and 25–30°C, respectively. The prevailing direction of H. halys flight was significantly affected by the time of day (Fisher's exact test, P < 0.0001) (fig. 6). In general, the prevailing flight direction was biased toward the opposite directions of the sun's position in the morning; though this pattern became less conspicuous in the afternoon.Fig. 5.

Bottom Line: The incidence of take off by H. halys was significantly affected by the wind speed; when provided with still air conditions, 83% of individuals took off, but the rates decreased to <10% when wind speed was increased to or above 0.75 m s-1.The incidence of take off by H. halys was significantly affected by ambient temperature and light intensity in the field, whereas relative humidity and insect sex did not.The implications of H. halys flight biology are discussed in the context of developing monitoring and management programs for this invasive species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Life Sciences,Gachon University,1342 Seongnamdaero,Sujeong-gu,Seongnam-si,Gyeonggi-do,Korea.

ABSTRACT
Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), is a highly polyphagous invasive species attacking both cultivated and wild plants increasing its threat to ecosystems as a global pest. However, dispersal biology of this invasive species is not well understood. This study evaluated the flight capacity and behavior of H. halys under laboratory, semi-field, and field conditions. Flight mills were used to measure the baseline flight capacity of adults collected year round from the field and included both foraging and overwintering populations. The effects of abiotic conditions such as wind speed and temperatures on the free flight parameters of H. halys were evaluated under semi-field and field conditions. The mean flight distances over a 22-h period were 2442 and 2083 m for male and female, respectively. Most individuals (89%) flew <5 km, though some flew much further with a maximum flight distance observed of 117 km. Flight distances by H. halys increased after emergence from overwintering sites in spring and reached their highest point in June. The incidence of take off by H. halys was significantly affected by the wind speed; when provided with still air conditions, 83% of individuals took off, but the rates decreased to <10% when wind speed was increased to or above 0.75 m s-1. The incidence of take off by H. halys was significantly affected by ambient temperature and light intensity in the field, whereas relative humidity and insect sex did not. When the temperature was at 10-15°C, 3% of individuals took off, but the proportion of H. halys taking flight increased to 61, 84, and 87% at 15-20, 20-25, and 25-30°C, respectively. In the field, prevailing flight direction was biased toward the opposite direction of the sun's position, especially in the morning. The implications of H. halys flight biology are discussed in the context of developing monitoring and management programs for this invasive species.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus