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Cocoa flavanol intake improves endothelial function and Framingham Risk Score in healthy men and women: a randomised, controlled, double-masked trial: the Flaviola Health Study.

Sansone R, Rodriguez-Mateos A, Heuel J, Falk D, Schuler D, Wagstaff R, Kuhnle GG, Spencer JP, Schroeter H, Merx MW, Kelm M, Heiss C, Flaviola Consortium, European Union 7th Framework Progr - Br. J. Nutr. (2015)

Bottom Line: At 1 month, CF increased FMD over control by 1·2 % (95 % CI 1·0, 1·4 %).CF decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 4·4 mmHg (95 % CI 7·9, 0·9 mmHg) and 3·9 mmHg (95 % CI 6·7, 0·9 mmHg), pulse wave velocity by 0·4 m/s (95 % CI 0·8, 0·04 m/s), total cholesterol by 0·20 mmol/l (95 % CI 0·39, 0·01 mmol/l) and LDL-cholesterol by 0·17 mmol/l (95 % CI 0·32, 0·02 mmol/l), whereas HDL-cholesterol increased by 0·10 mmol/l (95 % CI 0·04, 0·17 mmol/l).By applying the Framingham Risk Score, CF predicted a significant lowering of 10-year risk for CHD, myocardial infarction, CVD, death from CHD and CVD.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1Division of Cardiology,Pulmonology, and Vascular Medicine, Medical Faculty,University Duesseldorf,40225 Duesseldorf,Germany.

ABSTRACT
Cocoa flavanol (CF) intake improves endothelial function in patients with cardiovascular risk factors and disease. We investigated the effects of CF on surrogate markers of cardiovascular health in low risk, healthy, middle-aged individuals without history, signs or symptoms of CVD. In a 1-month, open-label, one-armed pilot study, bi-daily ingestion of 450 mg of CF led to a time-dependent increase in endothelial function (measured as flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD)) that plateaued after 2 weeks. Subsequently, in a randomised, controlled, double-masked, parallel-group dietary intervention trial (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01799005), 100 healthy, middle-aged (35-60 years) men and women consumed either the CF-containing drink (450 mg) or a nutrient-matched CF-free control bi-daily for 1 month. The primary end point was FMD. Secondary end points included plasma lipids and blood pressure, thus enabling the calculation of Framingham Risk Scores and pulse wave velocity. At 1 month, CF increased FMD over control by 1·2 % (95 % CI 1·0, 1·4 %). CF decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 4·4 mmHg (95 % CI 7·9, 0·9 mmHg) and 3·9 mmHg (95 % CI 6·7, 0·9 mmHg), pulse wave velocity by 0·4 m/s (95 % CI 0·8, 0·04 m/s), total cholesterol by 0·20 mmol/l (95 % CI 0·39, 0·01 mmol/l) and LDL-cholesterol by 0·17 mmol/l (95 % CI 0·32, 0·02 mmol/l), whereas HDL-cholesterol increased by 0·10 mmol/l (95 % CI 0·04, 0·17 mmol/l). By applying the Framingham Risk Score, CF predicted a significant lowering of 10-year risk for CHD, myocardial infarction, CVD, death from CHD and CVD. In healthy individuals, regular CF intake improved accredited cardiovascular surrogates of cardiovascular risk, demonstrating that dietary flavanols have the potential to maintain cardiovascular health even in low-risk subjects.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

(a) Study flow (CONSORT diagram) and (b) study protocol of the randomisedcontrolled study. BID, twice daily; FMD, flow-mediated dilation; PWV, pulse wavevelocity; AIX, augmentation index.
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fig1: (a) Study flow (CONSORT diagram) and (b) study protocol of the randomisedcontrolled study. BID, twice daily; FMD, flow-mediated dilation; PWV, pulse wavevelocity; AIX, augmentation index.

Mentions: The study took place at the Division of Cardiology, Pulmonology and Vascular Medicine ofDuesseldorf University in Duesseldorf, Germany from February 2013 to August 2014. Werecruited subjects by word-to-mouth and by postings at the University and UniversityOutpatient Clinic. All subjects who came to our attention were recruited for eligibilityscreened and consecutively included if eligible. A total of 114 consecutive subjectsunderwent assessment for eligibility (see Fig. 1for CONSORT diagram). We included 105 middle-aged (35–60 years) healthy Caucasian male andfemale subjects without history, signs or symptoms indicative of CVD, including previousmyocardial infarction (MI), stroke and peripheral artery disease or current or previousmedication, and a BMI of 23–27 kg/m2 (inclusion criteria). Exclusion criteriawere manifest or suspected CVD, diabetes, kidney failure, acute inflammation or a heartrhythm other than sinus, extreme diets including vegetarians and vegans, alcoholism andvitamin supplement use.Fig. 1


Cocoa flavanol intake improves endothelial function and Framingham Risk Score in healthy men and women: a randomised, controlled, double-masked trial: the Flaviola Health Study.

Sansone R, Rodriguez-Mateos A, Heuel J, Falk D, Schuler D, Wagstaff R, Kuhnle GG, Spencer JP, Schroeter H, Merx MW, Kelm M, Heiss C, Flaviola Consortium, European Union 7th Framework Progr - Br. J. Nutr. (2015)

(a) Study flow (CONSORT diagram) and (b) study protocol of the randomisedcontrolled study. BID, twice daily; FMD, flow-mediated dilation; PWV, pulse wavevelocity; AIX, augmentation index.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4594054&req=5

fig1: (a) Study flow (CONSORT diagram) and (b) study protocol of the randomisedcontrolled study. BID, twice daily; FMD, flow-mediated dilation; PWV, pulse wavevelocity; AIX, augmentation index.
Mentions: The study took place at the Division of Cardiology, Pulmonology and Vascular Medicine ofDuesseldorf University in Duesseldorf, Germany from February 2013 to August 2014. Werecruited subjects by word-to-mouth and by postings at the University and UniversityOutpatient Clinic. All subjects who came to our attention were recruited for eligibilityscreened and consecutively included if eligible. A total of 114 consecutive subjectsunderwent assessment for eligibility (see Fig. 1for CONSORT diagram). We included 105 middle-aged (35–60 years) healthy Caucasian male andfemale subjects without history, signs or symptoms indicative of CVD, including previousmyocardial infarction (MI), stroke and peripheral artery disease or current or previousmedication, and a BMI of 23–27 kg/m2 (inclusion criteria). Exclusion criteriawere manifest or suspected CVD, diabetes, kidney failure, acute inflammation or a heartrhythm other than sinus, extreme diets including vegetarians and vegans, alcoholism andvitamin supplement use.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: At 1 month, CF increased FMD over control by 1·2 % (95 % CI 1·0, 1·4 %).CF decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 4·4 mmHg (95 % CI 7·9, 0·9 mmHg) and 3·9 mmHg (95 % CI 6·7, 0·9 mmHg), pulse wave velocity by 0·4 m/s (95 % CI 0·8, 0·04 m/s), total cholesterol by 0·20 mmol/l (95 % CI 0·39, 0·01 mmol/l) and LDL-cholesterol by 0·17 mmol/l (95 % CI 0·32, 0·02 mmol/l), whereas HDL-cholesterol increased by 0·10 mmol/l (95 % CI 0·04, 0·17 mmol/l).By applying the Framingham Risk Score, CF predicted a significant lowering of 10-year risk for CHD, myocardial infarction, CVD, death from CHD and CVD.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1Division of Cardiology,Pulmonology, and Vascular Medicine, Medical Faculty,University Duesseldorf,40225 Duesseldorf,Germany.

ABSTRACT
Cocoa flavanol (CF) intake improves endothelial function in patients with cardiovascular risk factors and disease. We investigated the effects of CF on surrogate markers of cardiovascular health in low risk, healthy, middle-aged individuals without history, signs or symptoms of CVD. In a 1-month, open-label, one-armed pilot study, bi-daily ingestion of 450 mg of CF led to a time-dependent increase in endothelial function (measured as flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD)) that plateaued after 2 weeks. Subsequently, in a randomised, controlled, double-masked, parallel-group dietary intervention trial (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01799005), 100 healthy, middle-aged (35-60 years) men and women consumed either the CF-containing drink (450 mg) or a nutrient-matched CF-free control bi-daily for 1 month. The primary end point was FMD. Secondary end points included plasma lipids and blood pressure, thus enabling the calculation of Framingham Risk Scores and pulse wave velocity. At 1 month, CF increased FMD over control by 1·2 % (95 % CI 1·0, 1·4 %). CF decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 4·4 mmHg (95 % CI 7·9, 0·9 mmHg) and 3·9 mmHg (95 % CI 6·7, 0·9 mmHg), pulse wave velocity by 0·4 m/s (95 % CI 0·8, 0·04 m/s), total cholesterol by 0·20 mmol/l (95 % CI 0·39, 0·01 mmol/l) and LDL-cholesterol by 0·17 mmol/l (95 % CI 0·32, 0·02 mmol/l), whereas HDL-cholesterol increased by 0·10 mmol/l (95 % CI 0·04, 0·17 mmol/l). By applying the Framingham Risk Score, CF predicted a significant lowering of 10-year risk for CHD, myocardial infarction, CVD, death from CHD and CVD. In healthy individuals, regular CF intake improved accredited cardiovascular surrogates of cardiovascular risk, demonstrating that dietary flavanols have the potential to maintain cardiovascular health even in low-risk subjects.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus