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Human microbiomes and their roles in dysbiosis, common diseases, and novel therapeutic approaches.

Belizário JE, Napolitano M - Front Microbiol (2015)

Bottom Line: Studies are confirming that manipulation of non-pathogenic bacterial strains in the host can stimulate the recovery of the immune response to pathogenic bacteria causing diseases.The designing and production of pharmaceuticals based on our own body's microbiome is an emerging field and is rapidly growing to be fully explored in the near future.This review provides an outlook on recent findings on the human microbiomes, their impact on health and diseases, and on the development of targeted therapies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo Brazil.

ABSTRACT
The human body is the residence of a large number of commensal (non-pathogenic) and pathogenic microbial species that have co-evolved with the human genome, adaptive immune system, and diet. With recent advances in DNA-based technologies, we initiated the exploration of bacterial gene functions and their role in human health. The main goal of the human microbiome project is to characterize the abundance, diversity and functionality of the genes present in all microorganisms that permanently live in different sites of the human body. The gut microbiota expresses over 3.3 million bacterial genes, while the human genome expresses only 20 thousand genes. Microbe gene-products exert pivotal functions via the regulation of food digestion and immune system development. Studies are confirming that manipulation of non-pathogenic bacterial strains in the host can stimulate the recovery of the immune response to pathogenic bacteria causing diseases. Different approaches, including the use of nutraceutics (prebiotics and probiotics) as well as phages engineered with CRISPR/Cas systems and quorum sensing systems have been developed as new therapies for controlling dysbiosis (alterations in microbial community) and common diseases (e.g., diabetes and obesity). The designing and production of pharmaceuticals based on our own body's microbiome is an emerging field and is rapidly growing to be fully explored in the near future. This review provides an outlook on recent findings on the human microbiomes, their impact on health and diseases, and on the development of targeted therapies.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Taxonomic distribution, prevalence and abundance of microbial taxa that inhabit healthy human body sites as defined in the human microbiome projects (HMP). The colored rectangles denote phylum/class and genera. Clinical studies of the microbiome will help to elucidate the link between microbes and the promotion of a large number of diseases and pathological conditions as shown in the figure. The images were adapted from NIH HMP (http://www.hmpdacc.org/) and National Human Genome Research Institute (https://www.genome.gov/). TORCH, Toxoplasmosis, Oher infections (coxsackievirus, HIV, syphilis, etc), Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes simplex.
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Figure 1: Taxonomic distribution, prevalence and abundance of microbial taxa that inhabit healthy human body sites as defined in the human microbiome projects (HMP). The colored rectangles denote phylum/class and genera. Clinical studies of the microbiome will help to elucidate the link between microbes and the promotion of a large number of diseases and pathological conditions as shown in the figure. The images were adapted from NIH HMP (http://www.hmpdacc.org/) and National Human Genome Research Institute (https://www.genome.gov/). TORCH, Toxoplasmosis, Oher infections (coxsackievirus, HIV, syphilis, etc), Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes simplex.

Mentions: The first release of the HMP database included microbiome data of nasal passages, the oral cavity, skin, gastrointestinal tract, and urogenital tract (Human Microbiome Project, 2012a,b). Figure 1 schematically summarizes the data of these studies. The results of over 690 human microbiomes have shown that the majority of bacteria of the gut microbiome belongs to four phyla: Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria (Human Microbiome Project, 2012a,b). Only a fraction of microbes identified so far have been successfully cultured, and thousands are yet to be fully sequenced for a deeper taxonomic resolution (strains and subspecies) and functional analysis at the genomic level (Qin et al., 2010; Robinson et al., 2010; Abubucker et al., 2012; Flintoft, 2012; Zhou et al., 2013).


Human microbiomes and their roles in dysbiosis, common diseases, and novel therapeutic approaches.

Belizário JE, Napolitano M - Front Microbiol (2015)

Taxonomic distribution, prevalence and abundance of microbial taxa that inhabit healthy human body sites as defined in the human microbiome projects (HMP). The colored rectangles denote phylum/class and genera. Clinical studies of the microbiome will help to elucidate the link between microbes and the promotion of a large number of diseases and pathological conditions as shown in the figure. The images were adapted from NIH HMP (http://www.hmpdacc.org/) and National Human Genome Research Institute (https://www.genome.gov/). TORCH, Toxoplasmosis, Oher infections (coxsackievirus, HIV, syphilis, etc), Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes simplex.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4594012&req=5

Figure 1: Taxonomic distribution, prevalence and abundance of microbial taxa that inhabit healthy human body sites as defined in the human microbiome projects (HMP). The colored rectangles denote phylum/class and genera. Clinical studies of the microbiome will help to elucidate the link between microbes and the promotion of a large number of diseases and pathological conditions as shown in the figure. The images were adapted from NIH HMP (http://www.hmpdacc.org/) and National Human Genome Research Institute (https://www.genome.gov/). TORCH, Toxoplasmosis, Oher infections (coxsackievirus, HIV, syphilis, etc), Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes simplex.
Mentions: The first release of the HMP database included microbiome data of nasal passages, the oral cavity, skin, gastrointestinal tract, and urogenital tract (Human Microbiome Project, 2012a,b). Figure 1 schematically summarizes the data of these studies. The results of over 690 human microbiomes have shown that the majority of bacteria of the gut microbiome belongs to four phyla: Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria (Human Microbiome Project, 2012a,b). Only a fraction of microbes identified so far have been successfully cultured, and thousands are yet to be fully sequenced for a deeper taxonomic resolution (strains and subspecies) and functional analysis at the genomic level (Qin et al., 2010; Robinson et al., 2010; Abubucker et al., 2012; Flintoft, 2012; Zhou et al., 2013).

Bottom Line: Studies are confirming that manipulation of non-pathogenic bacterial strains in the host can stimulate the recovery of the immune response to pathogenic bacteria causing diseases.The designing and production of pharmaceuticals based on our own body's microbiome is an emerging field and is rapidly growing to be fully explored in the near future.This review provides an outlook on recent findings on the human microbiomes, their impact on health and diseases, and on the development of targeted therapies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo Brazil.

ABSTRACT
The human body is the residence of a large number of commensal (non-pathogenic) and pathogenic microbial species that have co-evolved with the human genome, adaptive immune system, and diet. With recent advances in DNA-based technologies, we initiated the exploration of bacterial gene functions and their role in human health. The main goal of the human microbiome project is to characterize the abundance, diversity and functionality of the genes present in all microorganisms that permanently live in different sites of the human body. The gut microbiota expresses over 3.3 million bacterial genes, while the human genome expresses only 20 thousand genes. Microbe gene-products exert pivotal functions via the regulation of food digestion and immune system development. Studies are confirming that manipulation of non-pathogenic bacterial strains in the host can stimulate the recovery of the immune response to pathogenic bacteria causing diseases. Different approaches, including the use of nutraceutics (prebiotics and probiotics) as well as phages engineered with CRISPR/Cas systems and quorum sensing systems have been developed as new therapies for controlling dysbiosis (alterations in microbial community) and common diseases (e.g., diabetes and obesity). The designing and production of pharmaceuticals based on our own body's microbiome is an emerging field and is rapidly growing to be fully explored in the near future. This review provides an outlook on recent findings on the human microbiomes, their impact on health and diseases, and on the development of targeted therapies.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus