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The Arabidopsis minE mutation causes new plastid and FtsZ1 localization phenotypes in the leaf epidermis.

Fujiwara MT, Kojo KH, Kazama Y, Sasaki S, Abe T, Itoh RD - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: Plastids in the leaf epidermal cells of plants are regarded as immature chloroplasts that, like mesophyll chloroplasts, undergo binary fission.In atminE1, the size and shape of epidermal plastids varied widely, which contrasts with the plastid phenotype observed in atminE1 mesophyll cells.Observation of an atminE1 transgenic line harboring an AtMinE1 promoter::AtMinE1-yellow fluorescent protein fusion gene confirmed the expression and plastidic localization of AtMinE1 in the leaf epidermis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: RIKEN Nishina Center Saitama, Japan ; Graduate School of Science and Technology, Sophia University Tokyo, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Plastids in the leaf epidermal cells of plants are regarded as immature chloroplasts that, like mesophyll chloroplasts, undergo binary fission. While mesophyll chloroplasts have generally been used to study plastid division, recent studies have suggested the presence of tissue- or plastid type-dependent regulation of plastid division. Here, we report the detailed morphology of plastids and their stromules, and the intraplastidic localization of the chloroplast division-related protein AtFtsZ1-1, in the leaf epidermis of an Arabidopsis mutant that harbors a mutation in the chloroplast division site determinant gene AtMinE1. In atminE1, the size and shape of epidermal plastids varied widely, which contrasts with the plastid phenotype observed in atminE1 mesophyll cells. In particular, atminE1 epidermal plastids occasionally displayed grape-like morphology, a novel phenotype induced by a plastid division mutation. Observation of an atminE1 transgenic line harboring an AtMinE1 promoter::AtMinE1-yellow fluorescent protein fusion gene confirmed the expression and plastidic localization of AtMinE1 in the leaf epidermis. Further examination revealed that constriction of plastids and stromules mediated by the FtsZ1 ring contributed to the plastid pleomorphism in the atminE1 epidermis. These results illustrate that a single plastid division mutation can have dramatic consequences for epidermal plastid morphology, thereby implying that plastid division and morphogenesis are differentially regulated in epidermal and mesophyll plastids.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Simultaneous detection of plastids and mitochondria in leaf epidermis of atminE1. (A–C) Images of plastids and mitochondria in leaf petiole epidermis of 2- or 3-week-old atminE1 seedlings. Images of plastid-targeted CFP (top in black and white), chlorophyll (Chl magenta-colored), mitochondria-targeted YFP (orange-colored), and merged (CFP cyan-colored, YFP orange-colored) are shown. Bars = 10 μm.
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Figure 4: Simultaneous detection of plastids and mitochondria in leaf epidermis of atminE1. (A–C) Images of plastids and mitochondria in leaf petiole epidermis of 2- or 3-week-old atminE1 seedlings. Images of plastid-targeted CFP (top in black and white), chlorophyll (Chl magenta-colored), mitochondria-targeted YFP (orange-colored), and merged (CFP cyan-colored, YFP orange-colored) are shown. Bars = 10 μm.

Mentions: No colocalization of CFP signals from grape-like plastid clusters, giant plastids, or stromules with YFP signals from mitochondria in atminE1 was observed (Figures 4A,B), as was the case for plastid bodies and stromules of WT (Figure 1E, middle). Meanwhile, due to the higher surface area of plastids in the mutant, attachment of mitochondria to plastids was more frequently observed in atminE1 than in WT. Although the bulge structures, which were attached to the plastid bodies or stromules, most closely resembled mitochondria, their CFP signals did not perfectly coincide with mitochondrial YFP signals (Figure 4C), indicating that these subplastidic structures and mitochondria were mutually discrete compartments.


The Arabidopsis minE mutation causes new plastid and FtsZ1 localization phenotypes in the leaf epidermis.

Fujiwara MT, Kojo KH, Kazama Y, Sasaki S, Abe T, Itoh RD - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Simultaneous detection of plastids and mitochondria in leaf epidermis of atminE1. (A–C) Images of plastids and mitochondria in leaf petiole epidermis of 2- or 3-week-old atminE1 seedlings. Images of plastid-targeted CFP (top in black and white), chlorophyll (Chl magenta-colored), mitochondria-targeted YFP (orange-colored), and merged (CFP cyan-colored, YFP orange-colored) are shown. Bars = 10 μm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4593956&req=5

Figure 4: Simultaneous detection of plastids and mitochondria in leaf epidermis of atminE1. (A–C) Images of plastids and mitochondria in leaf petiole epidermis of 2- or 3-week-old atminE1 seedlings. Images of plastid-targeted CFP (top in black and white), chlorophyll (Chl magenta-colored), mitochondria-targeted YFP (orange-colored), and merged (CFP cyan-colored, YFP orange-colored) are shown. Bars = 10 μm.
Mentions: No colocalization of CFP signals from grape-like plastid clusters, giant plastids, or stromules with YFP signals from mitochondria in atminE1 was observed (Figures 4A,B), as was the case for plastid bodies and stromules of WT (Figure 1E, middle). Meanwhile, due to the higher surface area of plastids in the mutant, attachment of mitochondria to plastids was more frequently observed in atminE1 than in WT. Although the bulge structures, which were attached to the plastid bodies or stromules, most closely resembled mitochondria, their CFP signals did not perfectly coincide with mitochondrial YFP signals (Figure 4C), indicating that these subplastidic structures and mitochondria were mutually discrete compartments.

Bottom Line: Plastids in the leaf epidermal cells of plants are regarded as immature chloroplasts that, like mesophyll chloroplasts, undergo binary fission.In atminE1, the size and shape of epidermal plastids varied widely, which contrasts with the plastid phenotype observed in atminE1 mesophyll cells.Observation of an atminE1 transgenic line harboring an AtMinE1 promoter::AtMinE1-yellow fluorescent protein fusion gene confirmed the expression and plastidic localization of AtMinE1 in the leaf epidermis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: RIKEN Nishina Center Saitama, Japan ; Graduate School of Science and Technology, Sophia University Tokyo, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Plastids in the leaf epidermal cells of plants are regarded as immature chloroplasts that, like mesophyll chloroplasts, undergo binary fission. While mesophyll chloroplasts have generally been used to study plastid division, recent studies have suggested the presence of tissue- or plastid type-dependent regulation of plastid division. Here, we report the detailed morphology of plastids and their stromules, and the intraplastidic localization of the chloroplast division-related protein AtFtsZ1-1, in the leaf epidermis of an Arabidopsis mutant that harbors a mutation in the chloroplast division site determinant gene AtMinE1. In atminE1, the size and shape of epidermal plastids varied widely, which contrasts with the plastid phenotype observed in atminE1 mesophyll cells. In particular, atminE1 epidermal plastids occasionally displayed grape-like morphology, a novel phenotype induced by a plastid division mutation. Observation of an atminE1 transgenic line harboring an AtMinE1 promoter::AtMinE1-yellow fluorescent protein fusion gene confirmed the expression and plastidic localization of AtMinE1 in the leaf epidermis. Further examination revealed that constriction of plastids and stromules mediated by the FtsZ1 ring contributed to the plastid pleomorphism in the atminE1 epidermis. These results illustrate that a single plastid division mutation can have dramatic consequences for epidermal plastid morphology, thereby implying that plastid division and morphogenesis are differentially regulated in epidermal and mesophyll plastids.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus