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Time Out-of-Home and Cognitive, Physical, and Emotional Wellbeing of Older Adults: A Longitudinal Mixed Effects Model.

Petersen J, Austin D, Mattek N, Kaye J - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: More hours outside the home was also associated with superior physical ability (βPain = -0.123, p<0.001) and improved emotional state (βLonely = -0.046, p<0.001; βLow mood = -0.520, p<0.001).In addition, these results indicate that the factors affecting out-of-home behavior are complex, with factors such as living environment, weather and season significantly affecting time out-of-home.Studies investigating the relationship between time out-of-home and health outcomes may be optimized by taking into account the environment and life factors presented here.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Engineering, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Background: Time out-of-home has been linked with numerous health outcomes, including cognitive decline, poor physical ability and low emotional state. Comprehensive characterization of this important health metric would potentially enable objective monitoring of key health outcomes. The objective of this study is to determine the relationship between time out-of-home and cognitive status, physical ability and emotional state.

Methods and findings: Participants included 85 independent older adults, age 65-96 years (M = 86.36; SD = 6.79) who lived alone, from the Intelligent Systems for Assessing Aging Changes (ISAAC) and the ORCATECH Life Laboratory cohorts. Factors hypothesized to affect time out-of-home were assessed on three different temporal levels: yearly (cognitive status, loneliness, clinical walking speed), weekly (pain and mood) or daily (time out-of-home, in-home walking speed, weather, and season). Subject characteristics including age, race, and gender were assessed at baseline. Total daily time out-of-home in hours was assessed objectively and unobtrusively for up to one year using an in-home activity sensor platform. A longitudinal tobit mixed effects regression model was used to relate daily time out-of-home to cognitive status, physical ability and emotional state. More hours spend outside the home was associated with better cognitive function as assessed using the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) Scale, where higher scores indicate lower cognitive function (βCDR = -1.69, p<0.001). More hours outside the home was also associated with superior physical ability (βPain = -0.123, p<0.001) and improved emotional state (βLonely = -0.046, p<0.001; βLow mood = -0.520, p<0.001). Weather, season, and weekday also affected the daily time out-of-home.

Conclusions: These results suggest that objective longitudinal monitoring of time out-of-home may enable unobtrusive assessment of cognitive, physical and emotional state. In addition, these results indicate that the factors affecting out-of-home behavior are complex, with factors such as living environment, weather and season significantly affecting time out-of-home. Studies investigating the relationship between time out-of-home and health outcomes may be optimized by taking into account the environment and life factors presented here.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Histogram of the daily hours spent outside the home, showing the limit at zero.A normal distribution curve is plotted as a dashed line to show the data is approximately normally distributed except at and below zero.
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pone.0139643.g001: Histogram of the daily hours spent outside the home, showing the limit at zero.A normal distribution curve is plotted as a dashed line to show the data is approximately normally distributed except at and below zero.

Mentions: A histogram of the daily time out-of-home data is shown in Fig 1. The data is approximately normally distributed over values greater than zero, but there is an accumulation of values around zero. This accumulation around zero results in a bimodal data pattern characteristic of censored variables, and makes it unreasonable to treat the data as a normally distributed conditional random variable. The tobit model directly accounts for the accumulation at zero, and has been validated as a superior approach to analyzing such censored and corner solution outcome variables [30, 31]. We therefore analyzed the relationship between total daily time out-of-home and cognitive status, physical ability and emotional state using a longitudinal tobit panel model in STATA.


Time Out-of-Home and Cognitive, Physical, and Emotional Wellbeing of Older Adults: A Longitudinal Mixed Effects Model.

Petersen J, Austin D, Mattek N, Kaye J - PLoS ONE (2015)

Histogram of the daily hours spent outside the home, showing the limit at zero.A normal distribution curve is plotted as a dashed line to show the data is approximately normally distributed except at and below zero.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4593630&req=5

pone.0139643.g001: Histogram of the daily hours spent outside the home, showing the limit at zero.A normal distribution curve is plotted as a dashed line to show the data is approximately normally distributed except at and below zero.
Mentions: A histogram of the daily time out-of-home data is shown in Fig 1. The data is approximately normally distributed over values greater than zero, but there is an accumulation of values around zero. This accumulation around zero results in a bimodal data pattern characteristic of censored variables, and makes it unreasonable to treat the data as a normally distributed conditional random variable. The tobit model directly accounts for the accumulation at zero, and has been validated as a superior approach to analyzing such censored and corner solution outcome variables [30, 31]. We therefore analyzed the relationship between total daily time out-of-home and cognitive status, physical ability and emotional state using a longitudinal tobit panel model in STATA.

Bottom Line: More hours outside the home was also associated with superior physical ability (βPain = -0.123, p<0.001) and improved emotional state (βLonely = -0.046, p<0.001; βLow mood = -0.520, p<0.001).In addition, these results indicate that the factors affecting out-of-home behavior are complex, with factors such as living environment, weather and season significantly affecting time out-of-home.Studies investigating the relationship between time out-of-home and health outcomes may be optimized by taking into account the environment and life factors presented here.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Engineering, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Background: Time out-of-home has been linked with numerous health outcomes, including cognitive decline, poor physical ability and low emotional state. Comprehensive characterization of this important health metric would potentially enable objective monitoring of key health outcomes. The objective of this study is to determine the relationship between time out-of-home and cognitive status, physical ability and emotional state.

Methods and findings: Participants included 85 independent older adults, age 65-96 years (M = 86.36; SD = 6.79) who lived alone, from the Intelligent Systems for Assessing Aging Changes (ISAAC) and the ORCATECH Life Laboratory cohorts. Factors hypothesized to affect time out-of-home were assessed on three different temporal levels: yearly (cognitive status, loneliness, clinical walking speed), weekly (pain and mood) or daily (time out-of-home, in-home walking speed, weather, and season). Subject characteristics including age, race, and gender were assessed at baseline. Total daily time out-of-home in hours was assessed objectively and unobtrusively for up to one year using an in-home activity sensor platform. A longitudinal tobit mixed effects regression model was used to relate daily time out-of-home to cognitive status, physical ability and emotional state. More hours spend outside the home was associated with better cognitive function as assessed using the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) Scale, where higher scores indicate lower cognitive function (βCDR = -1.69, p<0.001). More hours outside the home was also associated with superior physical ability (βPain = -0.123, p<0.001) and improved emotional state (βLonely = -0.046, p<0.001; βLow mood = -0.520, p<0.001). Weather, season, and weekday also affected the daily time out-of-home.

Conclusions: These results suggest that objective longitudinal monitoring of time out-of-home may enable unobtrusive assessment of cognitive, physical and emotional state. In addition, these results indicate that the factors affecting out-of-home behavior are complex, with factors such as living environment, weather and season significantly affecting time out-of-home. Studies investigating the relationship between time out-of-home and health outcomes may be optimized by taking into account the environment and life factors presented here.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus