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Fate of Carbohydrates and Lignin during Composting and Mycelium Growth of Agaricus bisporus on Wheat Straw Based Compost.

Jurak E, Punt AM, Arts W, Kabel MA, Gruppen H - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: During the Phase II of composting 50% of both xylan and cellulose were metabolized by microbial activity, while lignin structures were unaltered.During A. bisporus' mycelium growth (Phase III) carbohydrates were only slightly consumed and xylan was found to be partially degraded.Remaining lignin was found to be modified by an increase in the ratio of syringyl (S) to guaiacyl (G) units from 0.5 to 0.7 during mycelium growth, while fewer decorations on the phenolic skeleton of both S and G units remained.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Wageningen University, Laboratory of Food Chemistry, Bornse Weilanden 9, 6708 WG, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
In wheat straw based composting, enabling growth of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms, it is unknown to which extent the carbohydrate-lignin matrix changes and how much is metabolized. In this paper we report yields and remaining structures of the major components. During the Phase II of composting 50% of both xylan and cellulose were metabolized by microbial activity, while lignin structures were unaltered. During A. bisporus' mycelium growth (Phase III) carbohydrates were only slightly consumed and xylan was found to be partially degraded. At the same time, lignin was metabolized for 45% based on pyrolysis GC/MS. Remaining lignin was found to be modified by an increase in the ratio of syringyl (S) to guaiacyl (G) units from 0.5 to 0.7 during mycelium growth, while fewer decorations on the phenolic skeleton of both S and G units remained.

No MeSH data available.


S:G ratio (A) and distribution of syringyl (S) and guaiacyl (G) units (B), based on molar area, of wheat straw (WS) and total compost samples during composting BM, PI, PII and mycelium growth PIII–16 and in water insoluble compost PIwus, PIII-16wus.Rest S* and Rest G* S2 Table, BM: basic mixture; PI: compost after Phase I: PII: compost after Phase II; PIII–16: compost after 16 days of mycelium growth, A and B are biological duplicates and each sample measurement was performed in quadruplicates.
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pone.0138909.g005: S:G ratio (A) and distribution of syringyl (S) and guaiacyl (G) units (B), based on molar area, of wheat straw (WS) and total compost samples during composting BM, PI, PII and mycelium growth PIII–16 and in water insoluble compost PIwus, PIII-16wus.Rest S* and Rest G* S2 Table, BM: basic mixture; PI: compost after Phase I: PII: compost after Phase II; PIII–16: compost after 16 days of mycelium growth, A and B are biological duplicates and each sample measurement was performed in quadruplicates.

Mentions: The S:G ratios of wheat straw and different compost samples was calculated and is shown in Fig 5A. The S:G ratio in wheat straw was 0.49 (Fig 5A), which is in line with the value reported by del Rio [4], where vinyl-syringol and vinyl-guaiacol were excluded from the S:G ratio. The S:G ratio in PI and PII remained 0.51. After 16 days of mycelium growth (PIII–16), the S:G ratio changed to 0.68 (Fig 5A), indicating a modification in lignin by A. bisporus mycelium. The pyrograms obtained for compost samples as well as S:G values are found to be in line with values reported by Chen et al. [20] however, annotated peaks were not specified and the samples used were collected from different stages in the process. Therefore, these results are difficult to compare.


Fate of Carbohydrates and Lignin during Composting and Mycelium Growth of Agaricus bisporus on Wheat Straw Based Compost.

Jurak E, Punt AM, Arts W, Kabel MA, Gruppen H - PLoS ONE (2015)

S:G ratio (A) and distribution of syringyl (S) and guaiacyl (G) units (B), based on molar area, of wheat straw (WS) and total compost samples during composting BM, PI, PII and mycelium growth PIII–16 and in water insoluble compost PIwus, PIII-16wus.Rest S* and Rest G* S2 Table, BM: basic mixture; PI: compost after Phase I: PII: compost after Phase II; PIII–16: compost after 16 days of mycelium growth, A and B are biological duplicates and each sample measurement was performed in quadruplicates.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4593547&req=5

pone.0138909.g005: S:G ratio (A) and distribution of syringyl (S) and guaiacyl (G) units (B), based on molar area, of wheat straw (WS) and total compost samples during composting BM, PI, PII and mycelium growth PIII–16 and in water insoluble compost PIwus, PIII-16wus.Rest S* and Rest G* S2 Table, BM: basic mixture; PI: compost after Phase I: PII: compost after Phase II; PIII–16: compost after 16 days of mycelium growth, A and B are biological duplicates and each sample measurement was performed in quadruplicates.
Mentions: The S:G ratios of wheat straw and different compost samples was calculated and is shown in Fig 5A. The S:G ratio in wheat straw was 0.49 (Fig 5A), which is in line with the value reported by del Rio [4], where vinyl-syringol and vinyl-guaiacol were excluded from the S:G ratio. The S:G ratio in PI and PII remained 0.51. After 16 days of mycelium growth (PIII–16), the S:G ratio changed to 0.68 (Fig 5A), indicating a modification in lignin by A. bisporus mycelium. The pyrograms obtained for compost samples as well as S:G values are found to be in line with values reported by Chen et al. [20] however, annotated peaks were not specified and the samples used were collected from different stages in the process. Therefore, these results are difficult to compare.

Bottom Line: During the Phase II of composting 50% of both xylan and cellulose were metabolized by microbial activity, while lignin structures were unaltered.During A. bisporus' mycelium growth (Phase III) carbohydrates were only slightly consumed and xylan was found to be partially degraded.Remaining lignin was found to be modified by an increase in the ratio of syringyl (S) to guaiacyl (G) units from 0.5 to 0.7 during mycelium growth, while fewer decorations on the phenolic skeleton of both S and G units remained.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Wageningen University, Laboratory of Food Chemistry, Bornse Weilanden 9, 6708 WG, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
In wheat straw based composting, enabling growth of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms, it is unknown to which extent the carbohydrate-lignin matrix changes and how much is metabolized. In this paper we report yields and remaining structures of the major components. During the Phase II of composting 50% of both xylan and cellulose were metabolized by microbial activity, while lignin structures were unaltered. During A. bisporus' mycelium growth (Phase III) carbohydrates were only slightly consumed and xylan was found to be partially degraded. At the same time, lignin was metabolized for 45% based on pyrolysis GC/MS. Remaining lignin was found to be modified by an increase in the ratio of syringyl (S) to guaiacyl (G) units from 0.5 to 0.7 during mycelium growth, while fewer decorations on the phenolic skeleton of both S and G units remained.

No MeSH data available.