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Fate of Carbohydrates and Lignin during Composting and Mycelium Growth of Agaricus bisporus on Wheat Straw Based Compost.

Jurak E, Punt AM, Arts W, Kabel MA, Gruppen H - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: During the Phase II of composting 50% of both xylan and cellulose were metabolized by microbial activity, while lignin structures were unaltered.During A. bisporus' mycelium growth (Phase III) carbohydrates were only slightly consumed and xylan was found to be partially degraded.Remaining lignin was found to be modified by an increase in the ratio of syringyl (S) to guaiacyl (G) units from 0.5 to 0.7 during mycelium growth, while fewer decorations on the phenolic skeleton of both S and G units remained.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Wageningen University, Laboratory of Food Chemistry, Bornse Weilanden 9, 6708 WG, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
In wheat straw based composting, enabling growth of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms, it is unknown to which extent the carbohydrate-lignin matrix changes and how much is metabolized. In this paper we report yields and remaining structures of the major components. During the Phase II of composting 50% of both xylan and cellulose were metabolized by microbial activity, while lignin structures were unaltered. During A. bisporus' mycelium growth (Phase III) carbohydrates were only slightly consumed and xylan was found to be partially degraded. At the same time, lignin was metabolized for 45% based on pyrolysis GC/MS. Remaining lignin was found to be modified by an increase in the ratio of syringyl (S) to guaiacyl (G) units from 0.5 to 0.7 during mycelium growth, while fewer decorations on the phenolic skeleton of both S and G units remained.

No MeSH data available.


Identities of lignin-derived phenolic S (syringyl-like) and G (guaiacyl-like) compounds identified with Py-GC/MS and relative molar area higher than 1% in wheat straw (out of total S+G molar area).aInterpretation based on pure compounds. bInterpretation based on Ralph and Hatfield (1991), reverse search of compound in compost or WUS versus compound in wheat straw: 34S>99%, 42S>97%, 49S>99%. RS = reverse search
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pone.0138909.g002: Identities of lignin-derived phenolic S (syringyl-like) and G (guaiacyl-like) compounds identified with Py-GC/MS and relative molar area higher than 1% in wheat straw (out of total S+G molar area).aInterpretation based on pure compounds. bInterpretation based on Ralph and Hatfield (1991), reverse search of compound in compost or WUS versus compound in wheat straw: 34S>99%, 42S>97%, 49S>99%. RS = reverse search

Mentions: Pyrolysis was performed with a 2020 microfurnace pyrolyzer (Frontier Laboratories, New Ulm, MN, USA) equipped with an AS-1020E Autoshot. Components were identified by GC-MS using a Trace GC equipped with a DB–1701 fused-silica capillary column (30 m x 0.25 mm i.d. 0.25 μm film thickness) coupled to a DSQ-II (EI at 70 eV) (both Thermo Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA). The pyrolysis was performed at 500°C for 1 min. Helium was the carrier gas (1 mL min−1). Samples (60–70 μg) were pyrolyzed and each measurement was performed at least in triplicate. Initial oven temperature was 70°C (2 min hold) and it increased to 230°C with a rate of 5°C min−1, to 240°C by 2.5°C min−1 and finally to 270°C min−1 by 2.5°C min−1. Pure compounds were used as standards (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA; Brunshwig Chemie B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands and Fisher Scientific, Landsmeer, The Netherlands) and peak molar area was calculated as defined by del Rio [13]. For wheat straw a cut-off of 1% molar area for single S (syringyl-like lignin structures) and G (guaiacyl-like lignin structures) compounds was applied and only the fate of remaining compounds (>1% molar area) was analyzed for compost samples. Compounds with a molar area >1% in wheat straw are specified in Fig 2. For WUS, the fate of the same S and G compounds as in original compost was compared. Remaining S and G compounds were annotated as Rest S* and Rest G*. The same cut-off level was applied for phenolic furanose/pyranose (F/P) and unknown compounds based on total area of these compounds. F/ P compounds with a molar area >1% are annotated in S1 Table. The remaining compounds are specified in S2 Table. Amdis software (version 2.71, NIST, USA) was used for identification and deconvolution of peaks. For deconvolution the following parameters were set: adjacent peak subtraction = one, resolution = medium, sensitivity = high and shape requirements = low. For identification a target compound library (based on referents standards) was built. Referents standards were measured in order to obtain retention time (RT) information and mass spectra (Fig 2, S1 Table and S2 Table). Compounds identified based on referents standards were, first, selected based on RT (± 1.0 min; or ± 0.1 min for isomers). If RT was within the selected window an annotation was given if reversed search (RS) value was higher than 80%. Finally, for all WS compounds, also the ones identified based on Ralph and Hatfield [14], spectra were checked manually. Total annotated area of S- and G- lignin units in wheat straw was ±80%.


Fate of Carbohydrates and Lignin during Composting and Mycelium Growth of Agaricus bisporus on Wheat Straw Based Compost.

Jurak E, Punt AM, Arts W, Kabel MA, Gruppen H - PLoS ONE (2015)

Identities of lignin-derived phenolic S (syringyl-like) and G (guaiacyl-like) compounds identified with Py-GC/MS and relative molar area higher than 1% in wheat straw (out of total S+G molar area).aInterpretation based on pure compounds. bInterpretation based on Ralph and Hatfield (1991), reverse search of compound in compost or WUS versus compound in wheat straw: 34S>99%, 42S>97%, 49S>99%. RS = reverse search
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4593547&req=5

pone.0138909.g002: Identities of lignin-derived phenolic S (syringyl-like) and G (guaiacyl-like) compounds identified with Py-GC/MS and relative molar area higher than 1% in wheat straw (out of total S+G molar area).aInterpretation based on pure compounds. bInterpretation based on Ralph and Hatfield (1991), reverse search of compound in compost or WUS versus compound in wheat straw: 34S>99%, 42S>97%, 49S>99%. RS = reverse search
Mentions: Pyrolysis was performed with a 2020 microfurnace pyrolyzer (Frontier Laboratories, New Ulm, MN, USA) equipped with an AS-1020E Autoshot. Components were identified by GC-MS using a Trace GC equipped with a DB–1701 fused-silica capillary column (30 m x 0.25 mm i.d. 0.25 μm film thickness) coupled to a DSQ-II (EI at 70 eV) (both Thermo Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA). The pyrolysis was performed at 500°C for 1 min. Helium was the carrier gas (1 mL min−1). Samples (60–70 μg) were pyrolyzed and each measurement was performed at least in triplicate. Initial oven temperature was 70°C (2 min hold) and it increased to 230°C with a rate of 5°C min−1, to 240°C by 2.5°C min−1 and finally to 270°C min−1 by 2.5°C min−1. Pure compounds were used as standards (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA; Brunshwig Chemie B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands and Fisher Scientific, Landsmeer, The Netherlands) and peak molar area was calculated as defined by del Rio [13]. For wheat straw a cut-off of 1% molar area for single S (syringyl-like lignin structures) and G (guaiacyl-like lignin structures) compounds was applied and only the fate of remaining compounds (>1% molar area) was analyzed for compost samples. Compounds with a molar area >1% in wheat straw are specified in Fig 2. For WUS, the fate of the same S and G compounds as in original compost was compared. Remaining S and G compounds were annotated as Rest S* and Rest G*. The same cut-off level was applied for phenolic furanose/pyranose (F/P) and unknown compounds based on total area of these compounds. F/ P compounds with a molar area >1% are annotated in S1 Table. The remaining compounds are specified in S2 Table. Amdis software (version 2.71, NIST, USA) was used for identification and deconvolution of peaks. For deconvolution the following parameters were set: adjacent peak subtraction = one, resolution = medium, sensitivity = high and shape requirements = low. For identification a target compound library (based on referents standards) was built. Referents standards were measured in order to obtain retention time (RT) information and mass spectra (Fig 2, S1 Table and S2 Table). Compounds identified based on referents standards were, first, selected based on RT (± 1.0 min; or ± 0.1 min for isomers). If RT was within the selected window an annotation was given if reversed search (RS) value was higher than 80%. Finally, for all WS compounds, also the ones identified based on Ralph and Hatfield [14], spectra were checked manually. Total annotated area of S- and G- lignin units in wheat straw was ±80%.

Bottom Line: During the Phase II of composting 50% of both xylan and cellulose were metabolized by microbial activity, while lignin structures were unaltered.During A. bisporus' mycelium growth (Phase III) carbohydrates were only slightly consumed and xylan was found to be partially degraded.Remaining lignin was found to be modified by an increase in the ratio of syringyl (S) to guaiacyl (G) units from 0.5 to 0.7 during mycelium growth, while fewer decorations on the phenolic skeleton of both S and G units remained.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Wageningen University, Laboratory of Food Chemistry, Bornse Weilanden 9, 6708 WG, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
In wheat straw based composting, enabling growth of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms, it is unknown to which extent the carbohydrate-lignin matrix changes and how much is metabolized. In this paper we report yields and remaining structures of the major components. During the Phase II of composting 50% of both xylan and cellulose were metabolized by microbial activity, while lignin structures were unaltered. During A. bisporus' mycelium growth (Phase III) carbohydrates were only slightly consumed and xylan was found to be partially degraded. At the same time, lignin was metabolized for 45% based on pyrolysis GC/MS. Remaining lignin was found to be modified by an increase in the ratio of syringyl (S) to guaiacyl (G) units from 0.5 to 0.7 during mycelium growth, while fewer decorations on the phenolic skeleton of both S and G units remained.

No MeSH data available.