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Stem cell-derived exosomes: roles in stromal remodeling, tumor progression, and cancer immunotherapy.

Fatima F, Nawaz M - Chin J Cancer (2015)

Bottom Line: Stem cells are known to maintain stemness at least in part through secreted factors that promote stem-like phenotypes in resident cells.Accumulating evidence has clarified that stem cells release nano-vesicles, known as exosomes, which may serve as mediators of cell-to-cell communication and may potentially transmit stem cell phenotypes to recipient cells, facilitating stem cell maintenance, differentiation, self-renewal, and repair.It has become apparent that stem cell-derived exosomes mediate interactions among stromal elements, promote genetic instability in recipient cells, and induce malignant transformation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pathology and Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil. farah@usp.br.

ABSTRACT
Stem cells are known to maintain stemness at least in part through secreted factors that promote stem-like phenotypes in resident cells. Accumulating evidence has clarified that stem cells release nano-vesicles, known as exosomes, which may serve as mediators of cell-to-cell communication and may potentially transmit stem cell phenotypes to recipient cells, facilitating stem cell maintenance, differentiation, self-renewal, and repair. It has become apparent that stem cell-derived exosomes mediate interactions among stromal elements, promote genetic instability in recipient cells, and induce malignant transformation. This review will therefore discuss the potential of stem cell-derived exosomes in the context of stromal remodeling and their ability to generate cancer-initiating cells in a tumor niche by inducing morphologic and functional differentiation of fibroblasts into tumor-initiating fibroblasts. In addition, the immunosuppressive potential of stem cell-derived exosomes in cancer immunotherapy and their prospective applications in cell-free therapies in future translational medicine is discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Stem cell-derived exosomes, their role in maintenance of stemness and tumor propagation, and their clinical potential in immunotherapy and organ transplantation. ESCs embryonic stem cells, iPSCs induced pluripotent stem cells, CAFs cancer-associated fibroblasts, CSC cancer stem cells
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Fig4: Stem cell-derived exosomes, their role in maintenance of stemness and tumor propagation, and their clinical potential in immunotherapy and organ transplantation. ESCs embryonic stem cells, iPSCs induced pluripotent stem cells, CAFs cancer-associated fibroblasts, CSC cancer stem cells

Mentions: In summary, the multipotential aspects of stem cell-derived exosomes in maintaining stem cell features and regulation of immune programs in recipient tissues could be a future clinical consideration for disease monitoring (Fig. 4). Although augmenting data support the opinion that exosomes could be a promising therapeutic resource for the treatment of immune diseases [43, 153], translating this technology into stem cell-derived exosome-mediated cancer immunotherapy that offers minimized toxic effects and safety risks will need further studies.Fig. 4


Stem cell-derived exosomes: roles in stromal remodeling, tumor progression, and cancer immunotherapy.

Fatima F, Nawaz M - Chin J Cancer (2015)

Stem cell-derived exosomes, their role in maintenance of stemness and tumor propagation, and their clinical potential in immunotherapy and organ transplantation. ESCs embryonic stem cells, iPSCs induced pluripotent stem cells, CAFs cancer-associated fibroblasts, CSC cancer stem cells
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4593342&req=5

Fig4: Stem cell-derived exosomes, their role in maintenance of stemness and tumor propagation, and their clinical potential in immunotherapy and organ transplantation. ESCs embryonic stem cells, iPSCs induced pluripotent stem cells, CAFs cancer-associated fibroblasts, CSC cancer stem cells
Mentions: In summary, the multipotential aspects of stem cell-derived exosomes in maintaining stem cell features and regulation of immune programs in recipient tissues could be a future clinical consideration for disease monitoring (Fig. 4). Although augmenting data support the opinion that exosomes could be a promising therapeutic resource for the treatment of immune diseases [43, 153], translating this technology into stem cell-derived exosome-mediated cancer immunotherapy that offers minimized toxic effects and safety risks will need further studies.Fig. 4

Bottom Line: Stem cells are known to maintain stemness at least in part through secreted factors that promote stem-like phenotypes in resident cells.Accumulating evidence has clarified that stem cells release nano-vesicles, known as exosomes, which may serve as mediators of cell-to-cell communication and may potentially transmit stem cell phenotypes to recipient cells, facilitating stem cell maintenance, differentiation, self-renewal, and repair.It has become apparent that stem cell-derived exosomes mediate interactions among stromal elements, promote genetic instability in recipient cells, and induce malignant transformation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pathology and Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil. farah@usp.br.

ABSTRACT
Stem cells are known to maintain stemness at least in part through secreted factors that promote stem-like phenotypes in resident cells. Accumulating evidence has clarified that stem cells release nano-vesicles, known as exosomes, which may serve as mediators of cell-to-cell communication and may potentially transmit stem cell phenotypes to recipient cells, facilitating stem cell maintenance, differentiation, self-renewal, and repair. It has become apparent that stem cell-derived exosomes mediate interactions among stromal elements, promote genetic instability in recipient cells, and induce malignant transformation. This review will therefore discuss the potential of stem cell-derived exosomes in the context of stromal remodeling and their ability to generate cancer-initiating cells in a tumor niche by inducing morphologic and functional differentiation of fibroblasts into tumor-initiating fibroblasts. In addition, the immunosuppressive potential of stem cell-derived exosomes in cancer immunotherapy and their prospective applications in cell-free therapies in future translational medicine is discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus