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Will the Increasing of Anthropogenic Pressures Reduce the Biopotential Value of Sponges?

Januar HI, Pratitis A, Bramandito A - Scientifica (Cairo) (2015)

Bottom Line: Statistical multivariate analyses revealed sponges spatial competition was significantly different (P < 0.05) between groups of high, moderate, and low bioactivity level.Abiotic cover was detected as the major factor (36.19%) contributed to the differences and also the most discriminant factor distinguishing sponges spatial competition in the groups of bioactivity level (93.91%).These results showed the increasing anthropogenic pressures may result in a higher abiotic area and may directly be a consequence to the lower production of bioactive compounds in sponges.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Indonesian Research and Development Center for Marine and Fisheries Products Processing and Biotechnology, KS Tubun Petamburan VI Street, Slipi, Central Jakarta 10260, Indonesia ; Department of Marine Science, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Bogor Agricultural University, Kampus IPB, Darmaga Raya Street, Bogor 16680, Indonesia.

ABSTRACT
Production of bioactive compounds from marine benthic organisms is suggested to relate ecologically with environment. However, anthropogenic pressures cause a considerable damage to coral reefs environment. This research aimed to define the pattern sponges biopotential values at the increasing of anthropogenic pressures to coral reef environment. Three representative sponges were selected (Theonella sp., Hyrtios sp., and Niphates sp.) and study had been conducted in Hoga Island, Indonesia, to define the relationship between seawater variables (DO, pH, phosphate, and ammonia ions), sponges spatial competition, and their bioactivity level (Brine Shrimp Lethality Test). The study showed anthropogenic pressures affect the reef environment, as abiotic cover was increased and eutrophication was detected at the site closer to the run-off domesticated area. Statistical multivariate analyses revealed sponges spatial competition was significantly different (P < 0.05) between groups of high, moderate, and low bioactivity level. Abiotic cover was detected as the major factor (36.19%) contributed to the differences and also the most discriminant factor distinguishing sponges spatial competition in the groups of bioactivity level (93.91%). These results showed the increasing anthropogenic pressures may result in a higher abiotic area and may directly be a consequence to the lower production of bioactive compounds in sponges.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Score plot of CDA with sponges local coral cover as a variables to the sponges bioactivity, high (BSLT activity more than 50% at 100 ppm extract), moderate (BSLT activity between 30 and 50% at 100 ppm extract), and low (BSLT activity lower than 30% at 100 ppm extract).
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fig5: Score plot of CDA with sponges local coral cover as a variables to the sponges bioactivity, high (BSLT activity more than 50% at 100 ppm extract), moderate (BSLT activity between 30 and 50% at 100 ppm extract), and low (BSLT activity lower than 30% at 100 ppm extract).

Mentions: The plot of Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA) strengthens the bivariate correlation analysis (Figure 5). CDA revealed the first function (93.91%) related to abiotic cover and the second function related to soft coral and hard coral cover (6.08%). One-way ANOSIM revealed the sponges' spatial competition from each bioactivity group (high, moderate, and low) was significantly different (P < 0.05) and SIMPER showed that abiotic cover (36.19%), sponges cover (28.34%), and soft coral cover (21.44%) were factors that contributed to the differences. CDA also showed the “high” group related to sponges cover, “moderate” group related to soft coral cover, and “low” group related to abiotic cover. This explanatory multivariate ordination analysis is explained in higher abiotic cover; sponges can be expected to produce lower amount of bioactive compounds. On the contrary, at the contact of benthic competition with other species such as with soft coral and other sponges, sponges will produce higher amount of bioactive compounds, to maintain or expand in benthic living space competition.


Will the Increasing of Anthropogenic Pressures Reduce the Biopotential Value of Sponges?

Januar HI, Pratitis A, Bramandito A - Scientifica (Cairo) (2015)

Score plot of CDA with sponges local coral cover as a variables to the sponges bioactivity, high (BSLT activity more than 50% at 100 ppm extract), moderate (BSLT activity between 30 and 50% at 100 ppm extract), and low (BSLT activity lower than 30% at 100 ppm extract).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4592732&req=5

fig5: Score plot of CDA with sponges local coral cover as a variables to the sponges bioactivity, high (BSLT activity more than 50% at 100 ppm extract), moderate (BSLT activity between 30 and 50% at 100 ppm extract), and low (BSLT activity lower than 30% at 100 ppm extract).
Mentions: The plot of Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA) strengthens the bivariate correlation analysis (Figure 5). CDA revealed the first function (93.91%) related to abiotic cover and the second function related to soft coral and hard coral cover (6.08%). One-way ANOSIM revealed the sponges' spatial competition from each bioactivity group (high, moderate, and low) was significantly different (P < 0.05) and SIMPER showed that abiotic cover (36.19%), sponges cover (28.34%), and soft coral cover (21.44%) were factors that contributed to the differences. CDA also showed the “high” group related to sponges cover, “moderate” group related to soft coral cover, and “low” group related to abiotic cover. This explanatory multivariate ordination analysis is explained in higher abiotic cover; sponges can be expected to produce lower amount of bioactive compounds. On the contrary, at the contact of benthic competition with other species such as with soft coral and other sponges, sponges will produce higher amount of bioactive compounds, to maintain or expand in benthic living space competition.

Bottom Line: Statistical multivariate analyses revealed sponges spatial competition was significantly different (P < 0.05) between groups of high, moderate, and low bioactivity level.Abiotic cover was detected as the major factor (36.19%) contributed to the differences and also the most discriminant factor distinguishing sponges spatial competition in the groups of bioactivity level (93.91%).These results showed the increasing anthropogenic pressures may result in a higher abiotic area and may directly be a consequence to the lower production of bioactive compounds in sponges.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Indonesian Research and Development Center for Marine and Fisheries Products Processing and Biotechnology, KS Tubun Petamburan VI Street, Slipi, Central Jakarta 10260, Indonesia ; Department of Marine Science, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Bogor Agricultural University, Kampus IPB, Darmaga Raya Street, Bogor 16680, Indonesia.

ABSTRACT
Production of bioactive compounds from marine benthic organisms is suggested to relate ecologically with environment. However, anthropogenic pressures cause a considerable damage to coral reefs environment. This research aimed to define the pattern sponges biopotential values at the increasing of anthropogenic pressures to coral reef environment. Three representative sponges were selected (Theonella sp., Hyrtios sp., and Niphates sp.) and study had been conducted in Hoga Island, Indonesia, to define the relationship between seawater variables (DO, pH, phosphate, and ammonia ions), sponges spatial competition, and their bioactivity level (Brine Shrimp Lethality Test). The study showed anthropogenic pressures affect the reef environment, as abiotic cover was increased and eutrophication was detected at the site closer to the run-off domesticated area. Statistical multivariate analyses revealed sponges spatial competition was significantly different (P < 0.05) between groups of high, moderate, and low bioactivity level. Abiotic cover was detected as the major factor (36.19%) contributed to the differences and also the most discriminant factor distinguishing sponges spatial competition in the groups of bioactivity level (93.91%). These results showed the increasing anthropogenic pressures may result in a higher abiotic area and may directly be a consequence to the lower production of bioactive compounds in sponges.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus