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Climate-Driven Reshuffling of Species and Genes: Potential Conservation Roles for Species Translocations and Recombinant Hybrid Genotypes.

Scriber JM - Insects (2013)

Bottom Line: Biodiversity across all levels of biological classifications is fundamentally based on genetic diversity.However, the integration of genomics and phylogenetics into conservation management may not be as rapid as climate change.Climate-induced "reshuffling" (recombinations) of species composition, genotypes, and genomes may become increasingly ecologically and evolutionarily predictable, but future conservation management programs are more likely to remain constrained by human behavior than by lack of academic knowledge.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, MI 48824, USA. scriber@msu.edu.

ABSTRACT
Comprising 50%-75% of the world's fauna, insects are a prominent part of biodiversity in communities and ecosystems globally. Biodiversity across all levels of biological classifications is fundamentally based on genetic diversity. However, the integration of genomics and phylogenetics into conservation management may not be as rapid as climate change. The genetics of hybrid introgression as a source of novel variation for ecological divergence and evolutionary speciation (and resilience) may generate adaptive potential and diversity fast enough to respond to locally-altered environmental conditions. Major plant and herbivore hybrid zones with associated communities deserve conservation consideration. This review addresses functional genetics across multi-trophic-level interactions including "invasive species" in various ecosystems as they may become disrupted in different ways by rapid climate change. "Invasive genes" (into new species and populations) need to be recognized for their positive creative potential and addressed in conservation programs. "Genetic rescue" via hybrid translocations may provide needed adaptive flexibility for rapid adaptation to environmental change. While concerns persist for some conservationists, this review emphasizes the positive aspects of hybrids and hybridization. Specific implications of natural genetic introgression are addressed with a few examples from butterflies, including transgressive phenotypes and climate-driven homoploid recombinant hybrid speciation. Some specific examples illustrate these points using the swallowtail butterflies (Papilionidae) with their long-term historical data base (phylogeographical diversity changes) and recent (3-decade) climate-driven temporal and genetic divergence in recombinant homoploid hybrids and relatively recent hybrid speciation of Papilio appalachiensis in North America. Climate-induced "reshuffling" (recombinations) of species composition, genotypes, and genomes may become increasingly ecologically and evolutionarily predictable, but future conservation management programs are more likely to remain constrained by human behavior than by lack of academic knowledge.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The mean annual male hindwing bands of P. glaucus, P. canadensis, and likely hybrids as a function of summer D-day (F) totals from Alaska (left, at 65° N latitude) to Florida (right; at 27° N latitude). The Vermont “LF” (late flight homoploid recombinant hybrids, in July) and the EF (early flight of P. canadensis in mid-May to June) are basically sympatric, but separated temporally by 3–5 weeks [24,100]. The hybrid species, P. appalachiensis is indicated by squares at 2,800 D-days, with the nearly sympatric P. glaucus of lower elevations at 3,500 D-days in Pendleton Co. The correlation is significant (R² = 0.6669, n = 277 population means).
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insects-05-00001-f014: The mean annual male hindwing bands of P. glaucus, P. canadensis, and likely hybrids as a function of summer D-day (F) totals from Alaska (left, at 65° N latitude) to Florida (right; at 27° N latitude). The Vermont “LF” (late flight homoploid recombinant hybrids, in July) and the EF (early flight of P. canadensis in mid-May to June) are basically sympatric, but separated temporally by 3–5 weeks [24,100]. The hybrid species, P. appalachiensis is indicated by squares at 2,800 D-days, with the nearly sympatric P. glaucus of lower elevations at 3,500 D-days in Pendleton Co. The correlation is significant (R² = 0.6669, n = 277 population means).

Mentions: The hindwing band width serves as a useful diagnostic trait for P. canadensis (10%–40% width of anal cell), P. glaucus (55%–90%) and their hybrids (40%–55%; Figure 11, Figure 12, Figure 13 and Figure 14, [24,150,330]). Multiple hybrid zone transects and multiple-trait analyses will help us better understand the mosaic trait selection across the Z-chromosomes and genomes of these parental and hybrid Papilio [24,26,27]. However, the summer thermal landscape does provide an excellent predictor of the geographical distribution of hybrids and parental species in this group. This is especially true for some high latitude islands such as South Manitou Island in Lake Michigan (Figure 15) and also for the eastern mountains of North America, including Vermont (Figure 14; Table 2). Although not as evident as in the late flight hybrids of the Battenkill River area of Vermont, the Midwestern USA transects of the “glaucus-like” Z-linked species-diagnostic allozymes (Pgd-100/50, and Ldh-100) and the diagnostic autosomal allozyme HK (hexo-kinase) show differential introgression during the past 2 decades, reflecting strong divergent natural selection within the hybrid zone of Wisconsin and Michigan (cf. Figure 16a,b). The lack of movement for Ldh-100 suggests that its linkage with the direct development trait (od-) on the Z-chromosome, leads to mortality in all areas with insufficient D-days to support two generations. In contrast, survival is permitted by recombinant hybrid late-flight genotypes as well as P. canadensis, which have the obligate diapause (od+) trait [24,100].


Climate-Driven Reshuffling of Species and Genes: Potential Conservation Roles for Species Translocations and Recombinant Hybrid Genotypes.

Scriber JM - Insects (2013)

The mean annual male hindwing bands of P. glaucus, P. canadensis, and likely hybrids as a function of summer D-day (F) totals from Alaska (left, at 65° N latitude) to Florida (right; at 27° N latitude). The Vermont “LF” (late flight homoploid recombinant hybrids, in July) and the EF (early flight of P. canadensis in mid-May to June) are basically sympatric, but separated temporally by 3–5 weeks [24,100]. The hybrid species, P. appalachiensis is indicated by squares at 2,800 D-days, with the nearly sympatric P. glaucus of lower elevations at 3,500 D-days in Pendleton Co. The correlation is significant (R² = 0.6669, n = 277 population means).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4592632&req=5

insects-05-00001-f014: The mean annual male hindwing bands of P. glaucus, P. canadensis, and likely hybrids as a function of summer D-day (F) totals from Alaska (left, at 65° N latitude) to Florida (right; at 27° N latitude). The Vermont “LF” (late flight homoploid recombinant hybrids, in July) and the EF (early flight of P. canadensis in mid-May to June) are basically sympatric, but separated temporally by 3–5 weeks [24,100]. The hybrid species, P. appalachiensis is indicated by squares at 2,800 D-days, with the nearly sympatric P. glaucus of lower elevations at 3,500 D-days in Pendleton Co. The correlation is significant (R² = 0.6669, n = 277 population means).
Mentions: The hindwing band width serves as a useful diagnostic trait for P. canadensis (10%–40% width of anal cell), P. glaucus (55%–90%) and their hybrids (40%–55%; Figure 11, Figure 12, Figure 13 and Figure 14, [24,150,330]). Multiple hybrid zone transects and multiple-trait analyses will help us better understand the mosaic trait selection across the Z-chromosomes and genomes of these parental and hybrid Papilio [24,26,27]. However, the summer thermal landscape does provide an excellent predictor of the geographical distribution of hybrids and parental species in this group. This is especially true for some high latitude islands such as South Manitou Island in Lake Michigan (Figure 15) and also for the eastern mountains of North America, including Vermont (Figure 14; Table 2). Although not as evident as in the late flight hybrids of the Battenkill River area of Vermont, the Midwestern USA transects of the “glaucus-like” Z-linked species-diagnostic allozymes (Pgd-100/50, and Ldh-100) and the diagnostic autosomal allozyme HK (hexo-kinase) show differential introgression during the past 2 decades, reflecting strong divergent natural selection within the hybrid zone of Wisconsin and Michigan (cf. Figure 16a,b). The lack of movement for Ldh-100 suggests that its linkage with the direct development trait (od-) on the Z-chromosome, leads to mortality in all areas with insufficient D-days to support two generations. In contrast, survival is permitted by recombinant hybrid late-flight genotypes as well as P. canadensis, which have the obligate diapause (od+) trait [24,100].

Bottom Line: Biodiversity across all levels of biological classifications is fundamentally based on genetic diversity.However, the integration of genomics and phylogenetics into conservation management may not be as rapid as climate change.Climate-induced "reshuffling" (recombinations) of species composition, genotypes, and genomes may become increasingly ecologically and evolutionarily predictable, but future conservation management programs are more likely to remain constrained by human behavior than by lack of academic knowledge.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, MI 48824, USA. scriber@msu.edu.

ABSTRACT
Comprising 50%-75% of the world's fauna, insects are a prominent part of biodiversity in communities and ecosystems globally. Biodiversity across all levels of biological classifications is fundamentally based on genetic diversity. However, the integration of genomics and phylogenetics into conservation management may not be as rapid as climate change. The genetics of hybrid introgression as a source of novel variation for ecological divergence and evolutionary speciation (and resilience) may generate adaptive potential and diversity fast enough to respond to locally-altered environmental conditions. Major plant and herbivore hybrid zones with associated communities deserve conservation consideration. This review addresses functional genetics across multi-trophic-level interactions including "invasive species" in various ecosystems as they may become disrupted in different ways by rapid climate change. "Invasive genes" (into new species and populations) need to be recognized for their positive creative potential and addressed in conservation programs. "Genetic rescue" via hybrid translocations may provide needed adaptive flexibility for rapid adaptation to environmental change. While concerns persist for some conservationists, this review emphasizes the positive aspects of hybrids and hybridization. Specific implications of natural genetic introgression are addressed with a few examples from butterflies, including transgressive phenotypes and climate-driven homoploid recombinant hybrid speciation. Some specific examples illustrate these points using the swallowtail butterflies (Papilionidae) with their long-term historical data base (phylogeographical diversity changes) and recent (3-decade) climate-driven temporal and genetic divergence in recombinant homoploid hybrids and relatively recent hybrid speciation of Papilio appalachiensis in North America. Climate-induced "reshuffling" (recombinations) of species composition, genotypes, and genomes may become increasingly ecologically and evolutionarily predictable, but future conservation management programs are more likely to remain constrained by human behavior than by lack of academic knowledge.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus