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Factors Affecting Pheromone Production by the Pepper Weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Collection Efficiency.

Eller FJ, Palmquist DE - Insects (2014)

Bottom Line: Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-β-ocimene.Thereafter, pheromone production decreased and was extremely low during the scotophase (i.e., ca. 12 ng/h).Male pepper weevil density had a significant effect on both release rate and pheromone composition.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Functional Foods Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, USDA-ARS, 1815 North University Street, Peoria, IL 61604, USA. Fred.Eller@ARS.USDA.gov.

ABSTRACT
Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-β-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about age 15 days old and then tapered off. Male pepper weevils produced the highest amount of pheromone between noon and 2 pm (i.e., 4 to 6 h after "lights on") and were producing ca. 800 ng/h during this period. Thereafter, pheromone production decreased and was extremely low during the scotophase (i.e., ca. 12 ng/h). Male pepper weevil density had a significant effect on both release rate and pheromone composition. Pheromone production on a per male basis was highest for individual males and the percentage of geranic acid in the blend was lowest for individual males. Male pepper weevils produced only extremely low amounts of pheromone when feeding on artificial diet; however, they produced very high amounts when on fresh peppers. Together, this information will be useful in designing better attractant lures for pepper weevils.

No MeSH data available.


Effect of male density and age on pheromone production.
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insects-05-00909-f003: Effect of male density and age on pheromone production.

Mentions: The effect of male pepper weevil density on total pheromone production is shown in Figure 3. The ANOVA indicated there were significant effects of both male density (F2,30 = 7.39; p = 0.0025) and age (F4,30 = 3.39; p = 0.021) on total pheromone collected but not a significant interaction between density and age (F8,30 = 0.62; p = 0.754). The individually held pepper weevils showed a similar increase in age to that seen in the male age study although at a slightly lower level. When five male pepper weevils were held together, the total pheromone release rate on a per male basis did not increase much with age and was generally about half (i.e., ca. 1 μg/male day) of what was observed for the individual male pepper weevils. The total pheromone release rate on a per male basis for the two weevils held together was overall similar to that seen for the individual male pepper weevils, and was, in fact, statistically equivalent.


Factors Affecting Pheromone Production by the Pepper Weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Collection Efficiency.

Eller FJ, Palmquist DE - Insects (2014)

Effect of male density and age on pheromone production.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4592618&req=5

insects-05-00909-f003: Effect of male density and age on pheromone production.
Mentions: The effect of male pepper weevil density on total pheromone production is shown in Figure 3. The ANOVA indicated there were significant effects of both male density (F2,30 = 7.39; p = 0.0025) and age (F4,30 = 3.39; p = 0.021) on total pheromone collected but not a significant interaction between density and age (F8,30 = 0.62; p = 0.754). The individually held pepper weevils showed a similar increase in age to that seen in the male age study although at a slightly lower level. When five male pepper weevils were held together, the total pheromone release rate on a per male basis did not increase much with age and was generally about half (i.e., ca. 1 μg/male day) of what was observed for the individual male pepper weevils. The total pheromone release rate on a per male basis for the two weevils held together was overall similar to that seen for the individual male pepper weevils, and was, in fact, statistically equivalent.

Bottom Line: Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-β-ocimene.Thereafter, pheromone production decreased and was extremely low during the scotophase (i.e., ca. 12 ng/h).Male pepper weevil density had a significant effect on both release rate and pheromone composition.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Functional Foods Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, USDA-ARS, 1815 North University Street, Peoria, IL 61604, USA. Fred.Eller@ARS.USDA.gov.

ABSTRACT
Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-β-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about age 15 days old and then tapered off. Male pepper weevils produced the highest amount of pheromone between noon and 2 pm (i.e., 4 to 6 h after "lights on") and were producing ca. 800 ng/h during this period. Thereafter, pheromone production decreased and was extremely low during the scotophase (i.e., ca. 12 ng/h). Male pepper weevil density had a significant effect on both release rate and pheromone composition. Pheromone production on a per male basis was highest for individual males and the percentage of geranic acid in the blend was lowest for individual males. Male pepper weevils produced only extremely low amounts of pheromone when feeding on artificial diet; however, they produced very high amounts when on fresh peppers. Together, this information will be useful in designing better attractant lures for pepper weevils.

No MeSH data available.