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Factors Affecting Pheromone Production by the Pepper Weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Collection Efficiency.

Eller FJ, Palmquist DE - Insects (2014)

Bottom Line: Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-β-ocimene.Thereafter, pheromone production decreased and was extremely low during the scotophase (i.e., ca. 12 ng/h).Male pepper weevil density had a significant effect on both release rate and pheromone composition.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Functional Foods Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, USDA-ARS, 1815 North University Street, Peoria, IL 61604, USA. Fred.Eller@ARS.USDA.gov.

ABSTRACT
Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-β-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about age 15 days old and then tapered off. Male pepper weevils produced the highest amount of pheromone between noon and 2 pm (i.e., 4 to 6 h after "lights on") and were producing ca. 800 ng/h during this period. Thereafter, pheromone production decreased and was extremely low during the scotophase (i.e., ca. 12 ng/h). Male pepper weevil density had a significant effect on both release rate and pheromone composition. Pheromone production on a per male basis was highest for individual males and the percentage of geranic acid in the blend was lowest for individual males. Male pepper weevils produced only extremely low amounts of pheromone when feeding on artificial diet; however, they produced very high amounts when on fresh peppers. Together, this information will be useful in designing better attractant lures for pepper weevils.

No MeSH data available.


Effect of time of day on male pepper weevil pheromone production. “Lights on” at 8am and “lights off” at 10 pm. Values represent means (solid bars) and standard deviation of the mean (SEM) (gray bar) and are means over 5 days of collections. Means without letters in common differ significantly using LSD (p = 0.05).
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insects-05-00909-f002: Effect of time of day on male pepper weevil pheromone production. “Lights on” at 8am and “lights off” at 10 pm. Values represent means (solid bars) and standard deviation of the mean (SEM) (gray bar) and are means over 5 days of collections. Means without letters in common differ significantly using LSD (p = 0.05).

Mentions: The effects of time of day on male pheromone production are shown in Figure 2. The Durbin-Watson test revealed a first order autocorrelation of only 0.145, indicating effectively no dependence between the time point data. The F-value for Levene’s test for homogeneity of variance was 0.87 (p = 0.51) demonstrating that the natural log transformed data met the statistical assumptions for ANOVA. The ANOVA indicated there was a significant effect of time of day on total pheromone collected (F5,20 = 43.4; p = 0.0000). During the scotophase (i.e., 10 pm to 8 am), male pepper weevils produced very little pheromone (i.e., ca. 12 ng/h). However, as soon as the lights came on (i.e., the photophase), pheromone production increased dramatically to ca. 600 ng/h. The period between noon and 2 pm gave the highest pheromone release rate of ca. 800 ng/h. After 2 pm, pheromone production gradually tapered off to between 300 and 400 ng/h.


Factors Affecting Pheromone Production by the Pepper Weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Collection Efficiency.

Eller FJ, Palmquist DE - Insects (2014)

Effect of time of day on male pepper weevil pheromone production. “Lights on” at 8am and “lights off” at 10 pm. Values represent means (solid bars) and standard deviation of the mean (SEM) (gray bar) and are means over 5 days of collections. Means without letters in common differ significantly using LSD (p = 0.05).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4592618&req=5

insects-05-00909-f002: Effect of time of day on male pepper weevil pheromone production. “Lights on” at 8am and “lights off” at 10 pm. Values represent means (solid bars) and standard deviation of the mean (SEM) (gray bar) and are means over 5 days of collections. Means without letters in common differ significantly using LSD (p = 0.05).
Mentions: The effects of time of day on male pheromone production are shown in Figure 2. The Durbin-Watson test revealed a first order autocorrelation of only 0.145, indicating effectively no dependence between the time point data. The F-value for Levene’s test for homogeneity of variance was 0.87 (p = 0.51) demonstrating that the natural log transformed data met the statistical assumptions for ANOVA. The ANOVA indicated there was a significant effect of time of day on total pheromone collected (F5,20 = 43.4; p = 0.0000). During the scotophase (i.e., 10 pm to 8 am), male pepper weevils produced very little pheromone (i.e., ca. 12 ng/h). However, as soon as the lights came on (i.e., the photophase), pheromone production increased dramatically to ca. 600 ng/h. The period between noon and 2 pm gave the highest pheromone release rate of ca. 800 ng/h. After 2 pm, pheromone production gradually tapered off to between 300 and 400 ng/h.

Bottom Line: Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-β-ocimene.Thereafter, pheromone production decreased and was extremely low during the scotophase (i.e., ca. 12 ng/h).Male pepper weevil density had a significant effect on both release rate and pheromone composition.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Functional Foods Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, USDA-ARS, 1815 North University Street, Peoria, IL 61604, USA. Fred.Eller@ARS.USDA.gov.

ABSTRACT
Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-β-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about age 15 days old and then tapered off. Male pepper weevils produced the highest amount of pheromone between noon and 2 pm (i.e., 4 to 6 h after "lights on") and were producing ca. 800 ng/h during this period. Thereafter, pheromone production decreased and was extremely low during the scotophase (i.e., ca. 12 ng/h). Male pepper weevil density had a significant effect on both release rate and pheromone composition. Pheromone production on a per male basis was highest for individual males and the percentage of geranic acid in the blend was lowest for individual males. Male pepper weevils produced only extremely low amounts of pheromone when feeding on artificial diet; however, they produced very high amounts when on fresh peppers. Together, this information will be useful in designing better attractant lures for pepper weevils.

No MeSH data available.