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Biomechanical Properties of Hemlocks: A Novel Approach to Evaluating Physical Barriers of the Plant-Insect Interface and Resistance to a Phloem-Feeding Herbivore.

Ayayee P, Yang F, Rieske LK - Insects (2014)

Bottom Line: Northern Japanese hemlock had relatively greater hardness than the remaining species.Our data contributes an additional perspective to the existing framework within which greater susceptibility and subsequent mortality of eastern hemlocks is observed.The potential application of microindentation to understanding the nature and relevance of plant mechanical defenses in plant-herbivore interactions is also demonstrated and highlighted.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, University of Kentucky, S-225 Ag North, Lexington, KY 40546, USA. Ayayee.1@osu.edu.

ABSTRACT
Micromechanical properties that help mediate herbivore access may be particularly important when considering herbivorous insects that feed with piercing-sucking stylets. We used microindentation to quantify the micromechanical properties of hemlock, Tsuga spp., to quantify the hardness of the feeding site of the invasive hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae. We measured hardness of the hemlock leaf cushion, the stylet insertion point of the adelgid, across four seasons in a 1 y period for four hemlock species growing in a common garden, including eastern, western, mountain, and northern Japanese hemlocks. Leaf cushion hardness was highest in the fall and winter and lowest in summer for all species. Northern Japanese hemlock had relatively greater hardness than the remaining species. Our data contributes an additional perspective to the existing framework within which greater susceptibility and subsequent mortality of eastern hemlocks is observed. The potential application of microindentation to understanding the nature and relevance of plant mechanical defenses in plant-herbivore interactions is also demonstrated and highlighted.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

A schematic representation of a typical indentation process, demonstrating the relationship between indentation depth and load, where Hp: final depth after load removal, Hr: residual depth after load removal, Hc: contact depth of indentation, and Hm: maximum depth of indentation.
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insects-05-00364-f003: A schematic representation of a typical indentation process, demonstrating the relationship between indentation depth and load, where Hp: final depth after load removal, Hr: residual depth after load removal, Hc: contact depth of indentation, and Hm: maximum depth of indentation.

Mentions: Following the indentation, hardness is then determined using the load used to create the indentation and the calculated area of the impression on the material (Figure 3) [22].


Biomechanical Properties of Hemlocks: A Novel Approach to Evaluating Physical Barriers of the Plant-Insect Interface and Resistance to a Phloem-Feeding Herbivore.

Ayayee P, Yang F, Rieske LK - Insects (2014)

A schematic representation of a typical indentation process, demonstrating the relationship between indentation depth and load, where Hp: final depth after load removal, Hr: residual depth after load removal, Hc: contact depth of indentation, and Hm: maximum depth of indentation.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4592596&req=5

insects-05-00364-f003: A schematic representation of a typical indentation process, demonstrating the relationship between indentation depth and load, where Hp: final depth after load removal, Hr: residual depth after load removal, Hc: contact depth of indentation, and Hm: maximum depth of indentation.
Mentions: Following the indentation, hardness is then determined using the load used to create the indentation and the calculated area of the impression on the material (Figure 3) [22].

Bottom Line: Northern Japanese hemlock had relatively greater hardness than the remaining species.Our data contributes an additional perspective to the existing framework within which greater susceptibility and subsequent mortality of eastern hemlocks is observed.The potential application of microindentation to understanding the nature and relevance of plant mechanical defenses in plant-herbivore interactions is also demonstrated and highlighted.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, University of Kentucky, S-225 Ag North, Lexington, KY 40546, USA. Ayayee.1@osu.edu.

ABSTRACT
Micromechanical properties that help mediate herbivore access may be particularly important when considering herbivorous insects that feed with piercing-sucking stylets. We used microindentation to quantify the micromechanical properties of hemlock, Tsuga spp., to quantify the hardness of the feeding site of the invasive hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae. We measured hardness of the hemlock leaf cushion, the stylet insertion point of the adelgid, across four seasons in a 1 y period for four hemlock species growing in a common garden, including eastern, western, mountain, and northern Japanese hemlocks. Leaf cushion hardness was highest in the fall and winter and lowest in summer for all species. Northern Japanese hemlock had relatively greater hardness than the remaining species. Our data contributes an additional perspective to the existing framework within which greater susceptibility and subsequent mortality of eastern hemlocks is observed. The potential application of microindentation to understanding the nature and relevance of plant mechanical defenses in plant-herbivore interactions is also demonstrated and highlighted.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus