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Ghrelin reduces liver impairment in a model of concanavalin A-induced acute hepatitis in mice.

Mao Y, Wang J, Yu F, Cheng J, Li H, Guo C, Fan X - Drug Des Devel Ther (2015)

Bottom Line: Inflammatory cytokines were significantly reduced by ghrelin pretreatment.However, the Akt kinase inhibitor reversed the decrease of Bax and caspase 3, 8, 9, and reduced the protein level of p-Akt and Bcl-2.These effects could be interrupted by an Akt kinase inhibitor.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

ABSTRACT

Background and aims: Ghrelin is a 28-amino-acid gut hormone that was first discovered as a potent growth hormone secretagogue. Recently, it has been shown to exert a strong anti-inflammatory effect. The purpose of the study reported here was to explore the effect and mechanism of ghrelin on concanavalin (Con) A-induced acute hepatitis.

Methods: Balb/C mice were divided into four groups: normal control (NC) (mice injected with vehicle [saline]); Con A (25 mg/kg); Con A + 10 μg/kg ghrelin; and Con A + 50 μg/kg ghrelin (1 hour before Con A injection). Pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were detected. Protein levels of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K); phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt); caspase 3, 8, and 9; and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) were also detected. Perifosine (25 mM) (an Akt inhibitor) was used to investigate whether the protective effect of ghrelin was interrupted by an Akt inhibitor. Protein levels of p-AKT; Bcl-2; Bax; and caspase 3, 8, and 9 were also detected.

Results: Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and pathological damage were significantly ameliorated by ghrelin pretreatment in Con A-induced hepatitis. Inflammatory cytokines were significantly reduced by ghrelin pretreatment. Bcl-2; Bax; and caspase 3, 8, and 9 expression were also clearly affected by ghrelin pretreatment, compared with the Con A-treated group. However, the Akt kinase inhibitor reversed the decrease of Bax and caspase 3, 8, 9, and reduced the protein level of p-Akt and Bcl-2. Ghrelin activated the PI3K/Akt/Bcl-2 pathway and inhibited activation of autophagy.

Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that ghrelin attenuates Con A-induced acute immune hepatitis by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway and inhibiting the process of autophagy, which might be related to inhibition of inflammatory cytokine release, and prevention of hepatocyte apoptosis. These effects could be interrupted by an Akt kinase inhibitor.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The protective effect of ghrelin could be interrupted by Akt kinase inhibitor.Notes: Western blotting of expression of p-Akt; Bcl-2; Bax; and caspase 3, 8, and 9 in liver tissues. Real-time PCR evaluation of expression of Bcl-2 and Bax, and density quantification of p-Akt. *P<0.05 for NC vs Con A, #P<0.05 for Con A vs Con A + 10 μg/kg ghrelin, and †P<0.05 for Con A + 10 μg/kg ghrelin + perifosine vs Con A + 10 μg/kg ghrelin.Abbreviations: Con, concanavalin; p-Akt, phosphorylated Akt; NC, normal control; PCR, polymerase chain reaction.
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f6-dddt-9-5385: The protective effect of ghrelin could be interrupted by Akt kinase inhibitor.Notes: Western blotting of expression of p-Akt; Bcl-2; Bax; and caspase 3, 8, and 9 in liver tissues. Real-time PCR evaluation of expression of Bcl-2 and Bax, and density quantification of p-Akt. *P<0.05 for NC vs Con A, #P<0.05 for Con A vs Con A + 10 μg/kg ghrelin, and †P<0.05 for Con A + 10 μg/kg ghrelin + perifosine vs Con A + 10 μg/kg ghrelin.Abbreviations: Con, concanavalin; p-Akt, phosphorylated Akt; NC, normal control; PCR, polymerase chain reaction.

Mentions: The protein levels of p-Akt; Bcl2; Bax; and caspase 3, 8, and 9 were detected. Perifosine, an Akt kinase inhibitor, reversed the decrease of Bax and caspase 3, 8, and 9, and reduced the protein level of p-Akt and Bcl2 in treated mice compared with in mice treated with Con A + ghrelin only (Figure 6).


Ghrelin reduces liver impairment in a model of concanavalin A-induced acute hepatitis in mice.

Mao Y, Wang J, Yu F, Cheng J, Li H, Guo C, Fan X - Drug Des Devel Ther (2015)

The protective effect of ghrelin could be interrupted by Akt kinase inhibitor.Notes: Western blotting of expression of p-Akt; Bcl-2; Bax; and caspase 3, 8, and 9 in liver tissues. Real-time PCR evaluation of expression of Bcl-2 and Bax, and density quantification of p-Akt. *P<0.05 for NC vs Con A, #P<0.05 for Con A vs Con A + 10 μg/kg ghrelin, and †P<0.05 for Con A + 10 μg/kg ghrelin + perifosine vs Con A + 10 μg/kg ghrelin.Abbreviations: Con, concanavalin; p-Akt, phosphorylated Akt; NC, normal control; PCR, polymerase chain reaction.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4592035&req=5

f6-dddt-9-5385: The protective effect of ghrelin could be interrupted by Akt kinase inhibitor.Notes: Western blotting of expression of p-Akt; Bcl-2; Bax; and caspase 3, 8, and 9 in liver tissues. Real-time PCR evaluation of expression of Bcl-2 and Bax, and density quantification of p-Akt. *P<0.05 for NC vs Con A, #P<0.05 for Con A vs Con A + 10 μg/kg ghrelin, and †P<0.05 for Con A + 10 μg/kg ghrelin + perifosine vs Con A + 10 μg/kg ghrelin.Abbreviations: Con, concanavalin; p-Akt, phosphorylated Akt; NC, normal control; PCR, polymerase chain reaction.
Mentions: The protein levels of p-Akt; Bcl2; Bax; and caspase 3, 8, and 9 were detected. Perifosine, an Akt kinase inhibitor, reversed the decrease of Bax and caspase 3, 8, and 9, and reduced the protein level of p-Akt and Bcl2 in treated mice compared with in mice treated with Con A + ghrelin only (Figure 6).

Bottom Line: Inflammatory cytokines were significantly reduced by ghrelin pretreatment.However, the Akt kinase inhibitor reversed the decrease of Bax and caspase 3, 8, 9, and reduced the protein level of p-Akt and Bcl-2.These effects could be interrupted by an Akt kinase inhibitor.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

ABSTRACT

Background and aims: Ghrelin is a 28-amino-acid gut hormone that was first discovered as a potent growth hormone secretagogue. Recently, it has been shown to exert a strong anti-inflammatory effect. The purpose of the study reported here was to explore the effect and mechanism of ghrelin on concanavalin (Con) A-induced acute hepatitis.

Methods: Balb/C mice were divided into four groups: normal control (NC) (mice injected with vehicle [saline]); Con A (25 mg/kg); Con A + 10 μg/kg ghrelin; and Con A + 50 μg/kg ghrelin (1 hour before Con A injection). Pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were detected. Protein levels of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K); phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt); caspase 3, 8, and 9; and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) were also detected. Perifosine (25 mM) (an Akt inhibitor) was used to investigate whether the protective effect of ghrelin was interrupted by an Akt inhibitor. Protein levels of p-AKT; Bcl-2; Bax; and caspase 3, 8, and 9 were also detected.

Results: Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and pathological damage were significantly ameliorated by ghrelin pretreatment in Con A-induced hepatitis. Inflammatory cytokines were significantly reduced by ghrelin pretreatment. Bcl-2; Bax; and caspase 3, 8, and 9 expression were also clearly affected by ghrelin pretreatment, compared with the Con A-treated group. However, the Akt kinase inhibitor reversed the decrease of Bax and caspase 3, 8, 9, and reduced the protein level of p-Akt and Bcl-2. Ghrelin activated the PI3K/Akt/Bcl-2 pathway and inhibited activation of autophagy.

Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that ghrelin attenuates Con A-induced acute immune hepatitis by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway and inhibiting the process of autophagy, which might be related to inhibition of inflammatory cytokine release, and prevention of hepatocyte apoptosis. These effects could be interrupted by an Akt kinase inhibitor.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus