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'Only Fathers Smoking' Contributes the Most to Socioeconomic Inequalities: Changes in Socioeconomic Inequalities in Infants' Exposure to Second Hand Smoke over Time in Japan.

Saito J, Tabuchi T, Shibanuma A, Yasuoka J, Nakamura M, Jimba M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: This is a repeated cross-sectional study of 41,833 infants born in 2001 and 32,120 infants born in 2010 in Japan from nationally representative surveys using questionnaires.The relative index of inequality increased from 0.85 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 0.89) to 1.47 (95% CI, 1.37 to 1.56) based on income and from 1.22 (95% CI, 1.17 to 1.26) to 2.09 (95% CI, 2.00 to 2.17) based on education.In contrast, the slope index of inequality decreased from 30.9 (95% CI, 29.3 to 32.6) to 20.1 (95% CI, 18.7 to 21.5) based on income and from 44.6 (95% CI, 43.1 to 46.2) to 28.7 (95% CI, 27.3 to 30.0) based on education.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Community and Global Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan.

ABSTRACT

Background: Exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) is one of the major causes of premature death and disease among children. While socioeconomic inequalities exist for adult smoking, such evidence is limited for SHS exposure in children. Thus, this study examined changes over time in socioeconomic inequalities in infants' SHS exposure in Japan.

Methods: This is a repeated cross-sectional study of 41,833 infants born in 2001 and 32,120 infants born in 2010 in Japan from nationally representative surveys using questionnaires. The prevalence of infants' SHS exposure was determined and related to household income and parental education level. The magnitudes of income and educational inequalities in infants' SHS exposure were estimated in 2001 and 2010 using both absolute and relative inequality indices.

Results: The prevalence of SHS exposure in infants declined from 2001 to 2010. The relative index of inequality increased from 0.85 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 0.89) to 1.47 (95% CI, 1.37 to 1.56) based on income and from 1.22 (95% CI, 1.17 to 1.26) to 2.09 (95% CI, 2.00 to 2.17) based on education. In contrast, the slope index of inequality decreased from 30.9 (95% CI, 29.3 to 32.6) to 20.1 (95% CI, 18.7 to 21.5) based on income and from 44.6 (95% CI, 43.1 to 46.2) to 28.7 (95% CI, 27.3 to 30.0) based on education. Having only a father who smoked indoors was a major contributor to absolute income inequality in infants' SHS exposure in 2010, which increased in importance from 45.1% in 2001 to 67.0% in 2010.

Conclusions: The socioeconomic inequalities in infants' second hand smoke exposure increased in relative terms but decreased in absolute terms from 2001 to 2010. Further efforts are needed to encourage parents to quit smoking and protect infants from second hand smoke exposure, especially in low socioeconomic households that include non-smoking mothers.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Prevalence of parental smoking and indoor smoking according to the income level by both parents smoking and only father smoking.The prevalence is presented in Table 4. The total bar represents the parental smoking in each survey year, and each coloured bar, dark gray and light gray, represents the parental indoor smoking (SHS exposure in infants) and outdoor smoking, respectively.
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pone.0139512.g002: Prevalence of parental smoking and indoor smoking according to the income level by both parents smoking and only father smoking.The prevalence is presented in Table 4. The total bar represents the parental smoking in each survey year, and each coloured bar, dark gray and light gray, represents the parental indoor smoking (SHS exposure in infants) and outdoor smoking, respectively.

Mentions: By comparing the relative reduction between smoking and indoor smoking by parental smoking behaviours in the sub-analysis (S2 Table, Table 4, Fig 2), we found a much larger difference for ‘only father smoking’ (percentage change, -25.0% for only father smoking vs. -57.0% for only father smoking indoors) than for ‘both parents smoking’ (percentage change, -64.9% for both parents smoking vs. -73.4% for both parents smoking indoors). This suggests that the prevalence of ‘only father smoking indoors’ decreased because not only did the only father smokers decrease, but the indoor smoking among only father smokers also decreased. In contrast, the prevalence of both parents smoking indoors decreased mainly because both parental smokers decreased. Furthermore, the reduction in ‘both parental smoking’ originated mainly from the reduction of the mother smoking, as the relative decrease was as large as both parents smoking (percentage change, -64.9% for both parents smoking and -63.3% for mother smoking) (S2 Table, S3 Table).


'Only Fathers Smoking' Contributes the Most to Socioeconomic Inequalities: Changes in Socioeconomic Inequalities in Infants' Exposure to Second Hand Smoke over Time in Japan.

Saito J, Tabuchi T, Shibanuma A, Yasuoka J, Nakamura M, Jimba M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Prevalence of parental smoking and indoor smoking according to the income level by both parents smoking and only father smoking.The prevalence is presented in Table 4. The total bar represents the parental smoking in each survey year, and each coloured bar, dark gray and light gray, represents the parental indoor smoking (SHS exposure in infants) and outdoor smoking, respectively.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4592009&req=5

pone.0139512.g002: Prevalence of parental smoking and indoor smoking according to the income level by both parents smoking and only father smoking.The prevalence is presented in Table 4. The total bar represents the parental smoking in each survey year, and each coloured bar, dark gray and light gray, represents the parental indoor smoking (SHS exposure in infants) and outdoor smoking, respectively.
Mentions: By comparing the relative reduction between smoking and indoor smoking by parental smoking behaviours in the sub-analysis (S2 Table, Table 4, Fig 2), we found a much larger difference for ‘only father smoking’ (percentage change, -25.0% for only father smoking vs. -57.0% for only father smoking indoors) than for ‘both parents smoking’ (percentage change, -64.9% for both parents smoking vs. -73.4% for both parents smoking indoors). This suggests that the prevalence of ‘only father smoking indoors’ decreased because not only did the only father smokers decrease, but the indoor smoking among only father smokers also decreased. In contrast, the prevalence of both parents smoking indoors decreased mainly because both parental smokers decreased. Furthermore, the reduction in ‘both parental smoking’ originated mainly from the reduction of the mother smoking, as the relative decrease was as large as both parents smoking (percentage change, -64.9% for both parents smoking and -63.3% for mother smoking) (S2 Table, S3 Table).

Bottom Line: This is a repeated cross-sectional study of 41,833 infants born in 2001 and 32,120 infants born in 2010 in Japan from nationally representative surveys using questionnaires.The relative index of inequality increased from 0.85 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 0.89) to 1.47 (95% CI, 1.37 to 1.56) based on income and from 1.22 (95% CI, 1.17 to 1.26) to 2.09 (95% CI, 2.00 to 2.17) based on education.In contrast, the slope index of inequality decreased from 30.9 (95% CI, 29.3 to 32.6) to 20.1 (95% CI, 18.7 to 21.5) based on income and from 44.6 (95% CI, 43.1 to 46.2) to 28.7 (95% CI, 27.3 to 30.0) based on education.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Community and Global Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan.

ABSTRACT

Background: Exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) is one of the major causes of premature death and disease among children. While socioeconomic inequalities exist for adult smoking, such evidence is limited for SHS exposure in children. Thus, this study examined changes over time in socioeconomic inequalities in infants' SHS exposure in Japan.

Methods: This is a repeated cross-sectional study of 41,833 infants born in 2001 and 32,120 infants born in 2010 in Japan from nationally representative surveys using questionnaires. The prevalence of infants' SHS exposure was determined and related to household income and parental education level. The magnitudes of income and educational inequalities in infants' SHS exposure were estimated in 2001 and 2010 using both absolute and relative inequality indices.

Results: The prevalence of SHS exposure in infants declined from 2001 to 2010. The relative index of inequality increased from 0.85 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 0.89) to 1.47 (95% CI, 1.37 to 1.56) based on income and from 1.22 (95% CI, 1.17 to 1.26) to 2.09 (95% CI, 2.00 to 2.17) based on education. In contrast, the slope index of inequality decreased from 30.9 (95% CI, 29.3 to 32.6) to 20.1 (95% CI, 18.7 to 21.5) based on income and from 44.6 (95% CI, 43.1 to 46.2) to 28.7 (95% CI, 27.3 to 30.0) based on education. Having only a father who smoked indoors was a major contributor to absolute income inequality in infants' SHS exposure in 2010, which increased in importance from 45.1% in 2001 to 67.0% in 2010.

Conclusions: The socioeconomic inequalities in infants' second hand smoke exposure increased in relative terms but decreased in absolute terms from 2001 to 2010. Further efforts are needed to encourage parents to quit smoking and protect infants from second hand smoke exposure, especially in low socioeconomic households that include non-smoking mothers.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus