Limits...
'Only Fathers Smoking' Contributes the Most to Socioeconomic Inequalities: Changes in Socioeconomic Inequalities in Infants' Exposure to Second Hand Smoke over Time in Japan.

Saito J, Tabuchi T, Shibanuma A, Yasuoka J, Nakamura M, Jimba M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: This is a repeated cross-sectional study of 41,833 infants born in 2001 and 32,120 infants born in 2010 in Japan from nationally representative surveys using questionnaires.The relative index of inequality increased from 0.85 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 0.89) to 1.47 (95% CI, 1.37 to 1.56) based on income and from 1.22 (95% CI, 1.17 to 1.26) to 2.09 (95% CI, 2.00 to 2.17) based on education.In contrast, the slope index of inequality decreased from 30.9 (95% CI, 29.3 to 32.6) to 20.1 (95% CI, 18.7 to 21.5) based on income and from 44.6 (95% CI, 43.1 to 46.2) to 28.7 (95% CI, 27.3 to 30.0) based on education.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Community and Global Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan.

ABSTRACT

Background: Exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) is one of the major causes of premature death and disease among children. While socioeconomic inequalities exist for adult smoking, such evidence is limited for SHS exposure in children. Thus, this study examined changes over time in socioeconomic inequalities in infants' SHS exposure in Japan.

Methods: This is a repeated cross-sectional study of 41,833 infants born in 2001 and 32,120 infants born in 2010 in Japan from nationally representative surveys using questionnaires. The prevalence of infants' SHS exposure was determined and related to household income and parental education level. The magnitudes of income and educational inequalities in infants' SHS exposure were estimated in 2001 and 2010 using both absolute and relative inequality indices.

Results: The prevalence of SHS exposure in infants declined from 2001 to 2010. The relative index of inequality increased from 0.85 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 0.89) to 1.47 (95% CI, 1.37 to 1.56) based on income and from 1.22 (95% CI, 1.17 to 1.26) to 2.09 (95% CI, 2.00 to 2.17) based on education. In contrast, the slope index of inequality decreased from 30.9 (95% CI, 29.3 to 32.6) to 20.1 (95% CI, 18.7 to 21.5) based on income and from 44.6 (95% CI, 43.1 to 46.2) to 28.7 (95% CI, 27.3 to 30.0) based on education. Having only a father who smoked indoors was a major contributor to absolute income inequality in infants' SHS exposure in 2010, which increased in importance from 45.1% in 2001 to 67.0% in 2010.

Conclusions: The socioeconomic inequalities in infants' second hand smoke exposure increased in relative terms but decreased in absolute terms from 2001 to 2010. Further efforts are needed to encourage parents to quit smoking and protect infants from second hand smoke exposure, especially in low socioeconomic households that include non-smoking mothers.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Contributions of parental indoor smoking behaviour to absolute income inequality in SHS exposure in infants.The total bar represents the total absolute income inequality (SII) in each survey year, and each component represents the SII of each parental indoor smoking behaviour.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4592009&req=5

pone.0139512.g001: Contributions of parental indoor smoking behaviour to absolute income inequality in SHS exposure in infants.The total bar represents the total absolute income inequality (SII) in each survey year, and each component represents the SII of each parental indoor smoking behaviour.

Mentions: Regarding SHS exposure from the three parental indoor smoking behaviours, ‘only father smoking indoors’ was a major source of SHS exposure in infants (69.8% in 2001 and 78.7% in 2010) (Table 3). Table 4 shows the prevalence of SHS exposure in infants by parental smoking behaviours according to the income level. Although the overall prevalence of SHS exposure by ‘only father smoking indoors’ decreased by 57.0%, the absolute inequality did not decrease (SII changed from 13.95 in 2001 to 13.45 in 2010) because of the much smaller decrease in the lowest income group (-43.5 percentage change). Fig 1 shows the contributions of absolute income inequality (SII) in SHS exposure in infants to the total income SII by parental indoor smoking behaviour. The proportion represented by ‘only father smoking indoors’ increased (from 45.1% [13.95/30.94] in 2001 to 67.0% [13.45/20.08] in 2010) and became a major contributor in 2010, while the proportion represented by ‘both parents smoking indoors’ decreased over time (from 51.7% [15.99/30.94] in 2001 to 30.0% [6.02/20.08] in 2010).


'Only Fathers Smoking' Contributes the Most to Socioeconomic Inequalities: Changes in Socioeconomic Inequalities in Infants' Exposure to Second Hand Smoke over Time in Japan.

Saito J, Tabuchi T, Shibanuma A, Yasuoka J, Nakamura M, Jimba M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Contributions of parental indoor smoking behaviour to absolute income inequality in SHS exposure in infants.The total bar represents the total absolute income inequality (SII) in each survey year, and each component represents the SII of each parental indoor smoking behaviour.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4592009&req=5

pone.0139512.g001: Contributions of parental indoor smoking behaviour to absolute income inequality in SHS exposure in infants.The total bar represents the total absolute income inequality (SII) in each survey year, and each component represents the SII of each parental indoor smoking behaviour.
Mentions: Regarding SHS exposure from the three parental indoor smoking behaviours, ‘only father smoking indoors’ was a major source of SHS exposure in infants (69.8% in 2001 and 78.7% in 2010) (Table 3). Table 4 shows the prevalence of SHS exposure in infants by parental smoking behaviours according to the income level. Although the overall prevalence of SHS exposure by ‘only father smoking indoors’ decreased by 57.0%, the absolute inequality did not decrease (SII changed from 13.95 in 2001 to 13.45 in 2010) because of the much smaller decrease in the lowest income group (-43.5 percentage change). Fig 1 shows the contributions of absolute income inequality (SII) in SHS exposure in infants to the total income SII by parental indoor smoking behaviour. The proportion represented by ‘only father smoking indoors’ increased (from 45.1% [13.95/30.94] in 2001 to 67.0% [13.45/20.08] in 2010) and became a major contributor in 2010, while the proportion represented by ‘both parents smoking indoors’ decreased over time (from 51.7% [15.99/30.94] in 2001 to 30.0% [6.02/20.08] in 2010).

Bottom Line: This is a repeated cross-sectional study of 41,833 infants born in 2001 and 32,120 infants born in 2010 in Japan from nationally representative surveys using questionnaires.The relative index of inequality increased from 0.85 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 0.89) to 1.47 (95% CI, 1.37 to 1.56) based on income and from 1.22 (95% CI, 1.17 to 1.26) to 2.09 (95% CI, 2.00 to 2.17) based on education.In contrast, the slope index of inequality decreased from 30.9 (95% CI, 29.3 to 32.6) to 20.1 (95% CI, 18.7 to 21.5) based on income and from 44.6 (95% CI, 43.1 to 46.2) to 28.7 (95% CI, 27.3 to 30.0) based on education.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Community and Global Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan.

ABSTRACT

Background: Exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) is one of the major causes of premature death and disease among children. While socioeconomic inequalities exist for adult smoking, such evidence is limited for SHS exposure in children. Thus, this study examined changes over time in socioeconomic inequalities in infants' SHS exposure in Japan.

Methods: This is a repeated cross-sectional study of 41,833 infants born in 2001 and 32,120 infants born in 2010 in Japan from nationally representative surveys using questionnaires. The prevalence of infants' SHS exposure was determined and related to household income and parental education level. The magnitudes of income and educational inequalities in infants' SHS exposure were estimated in 2001 and 2010 using both absolute and relative inequality indices.

Results: The prevalence of SHS exposure in infants declined from 2001 to 2010. The relative index of inequality increased from 0.85 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 0.89) to 1.47 (95% CI, 1.37 to 1.56) based on income and from 1.22 (95% CI, 1.17 to 1.26) to 2.09 (95% CI, 2.00 to 2.17) based on education. In contrast, the slope index of inequality decreased from 30.9 (95% CI, 29.3 to 32.6) to 20.1 (95% CI, 18.7 to 21.5) based on income and from 44.6 (95% CI, 43.1 to 46.2) to 28.7 (95% CI, 27.3 to 30.0) based on education. Having only a father who smoked indoors was a major contributor to absolute income inequality in infants' SHS exposure in 2010, which increased in importance from 45.1% in 2001 to 67.0% in 2010.

Conclusions: The socioeconomic inequalities in infants' second hand smoke exposure increased in relative terms but decreased in absolute terms from 2001 to 2010. Further efforts are needed to encourage parents to quit smoking and protect infants from second hand smoke exposure, especially in low socioeconomic households that include non-smoking mothers.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus