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Genetics, Synergists, and Age Affect Insecticide Sensitivity of the Honey Bee, Apis mellifera.

Rinkevich FD, Margotta JW, Pittman JM, Danka RG, Tarver MR, Ottea JA, Healy KB - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: We found that Italian bees were the most sensitive of these stocks to insecticides, but variation was largely dependent on the class of insecticide tested.In addition, as bees aged, the sensitivity to phenothrin significantly decreased, but the sensitivity to naled significantly increased.These results demonstrate the variation arising from the genetic background and physiological transitions in honey bees as they age.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, Life Sciences Annex, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The number of honey bee colonies in the United States has declined to half of its peak level in the 1940s, and colonies lost over the winter have reached levels that are becoming economically unstable. While the causes of these losses are numerous and the interaction between them is very complex, the role of insecticides has garnered much attention. As a result, there is a need to better understand the risk of insecticides to bees, leading to more studies on both toxicity and exposure. While much research has been conducted on insecticides and bees, there have been very limited studies to elucidate the role that bee genotype and age has on the toxicity of these insecticides. The goal of this study was to determine if there are differences in insecticide sensitivity between honey bees of different genetic backgrounds (Carniolan, Italian, and Russian stocks) and assess if insecticide sensitivity varies with age. We found that Italian bees were the most sensitive of these stocks to insecticides, but variation was largely dependent on the class of insecticide tested. There were almost no differences in organophosphate bioassays between honey bee stocks (<1-fold), moderate differences in pyrethroid bioassays (1.5 to 3-fold), and dramatic differences in neonicotinoid bioassays (3.4 to 33.3-fold). Synergism bioassays with piperonyl butoxide, amitraz, and coumaphos showed increased phenothrin sensitivity in all stocks and also demonstrated further physiological differences between stocks. In addition, as bees aged, the sensitivity to phenothrin significantly decreased, but the sensitivity to naled significantly increased. These results demonstrate the variation arising from the genetic background and physiological transitions in honey bees as they age. This information can be used to determine risk assessment, as well as establishing baseline data for future comparisons to explain the variation in toxicity differences for honey bees reported in the literature.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Naled sensitivity increases with age in honey bees.Letters above data points indicate significant differences in the LD50 values.
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pone.0139841.g002: Naled sensitivity increases with age in honey bees.Letters above data points indicate significant differences in the LD50 values.

Mentions: Sensitivity to phenothrin and naled was significantly correlated with age. In the case of phenothrin, 3-day-old bees were significantly more sensitive than 14-, 28-, and 42-day-old bees (Fig 1). Phenothrin sensitivity significantly decreased by 1.7-, 1.8-, and 2.1-fold in 14-, 28-, and 42-day-old bees, respectively, compared to 3-day-old bees. The decrease in phenothrin sensitivity was significantly correlated with age (Linear Regression, F = 71.13, p = 0.014, R2 = 0.880). In contrast, naled sensitivity significantly increased with age (F = 27.23, p = 0.035; R2 = 0.949, Fig 2). The increase in naled sensitivity continued as bees aged as 28-day-old bees were significantly more sensitive than 3-day-old bees while 42-day-old bees were significantly more sensitive than both 3-and 14-day-old bees.


Genetics, Synergists, and Age Affect Insecticide Sensitivity of the Honey Bee, Apis mellifera.

Rinkevich FD, Margotta JW, Pittman JM, Danka RG, Tarver MR, Ottea JA, Healy KB - PLoS ONE (2015)

Naled sensitivity increases with age in honey bees.Letters above data points indicate significant differences in the LD50 values.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4592006&req=5

pone.0139841.g002: Naled sensitivity increases with age in honey bees.Letters above data points indicate significant differences in the LD50 values.
Mentions: Sensitivity to phenothrin and naled was significantly correlated with age. In the case of phenothrin, 3-day-old bees were significantly more sensitive than 14-, 28-, and 42-day-old bees (Fig 1). Phenothrin sensitivity significantly decreased by 1.7-, 1.8-, and 2.1-fold in 14-, 28-, and 42-day-old bees, respectively, compared to 3-day-old bees. The decrease in phenothrin sensitivity was significantly correlated with age (Linear Regression, F = 71.13, p = 0.014, R2 = 0.880). In contrast, naled sensitivity significantly increased with age (F = 27.23, p = 0.035; R2 = 0.949, Fig 2). The increase in naled sensitivity continued as bees aged as 28-day-old bees were significantly more sensitive than 3-day-old bees while 42-day-old bees were significantly more sensitive than both 3-and 14-day-old bees.

Bottom Line: We found that Italian bees were the most sensitive of these stocks to insecticides, but variation was largely dependent on the class of insecticide tested.In addition, as bees aged, the sensitivity to phenothrin significantly decreased, but the sensitivity to naled significantly increased.These results demonstrate the variation arising from the genetic background and physiological transitions in honey bees as they age.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, Life Sciences Annex, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The number of honey bee colonies in the United States has declined to half of its peak level in the 1940s, and colonies lost over the winter have reached levels that are becoming economically unstable. While the causes of these losses are numerous and the interaction between them is very complex, the role of insecticides has garnered much attention. As a result, there is a need to better understand the risk of insecticides to bees, leading to more studies on both toxicity and exposure. While much research has been conducted on insecticides and bees, there have been very limited studies to elucidate the role that bee genotype and age has on the toxicity of these insecticides. The goal of this study was to determine if there are differences in insecticide sensitivity between honey bees of different genetic backgrounds (Carniolan, Italian, and Russian stocks) and assess if insecticide sensitivity varies with age. We found that Italian bees were the most sensitive of these stocks to insecticides, but variation was largely dependent on the class of insecticide tested. There were almost no differences in organophosphate bioassays between honey bee stocks (<1-fold), moderate differences in pyrethroid bioassays (1.5 to 3-fold), and dramatic differences in neonicotinoid bioassays (3.4 to 33.3-fold). Synergism bioassays with piperonyl butoxide, amitraz, and coumaphos showed increased phenothrin sensitivity in all stocks and also demonstrated further physiological differences between stocks. In addition, as bees aged, the sensitivity to phenothrin significantly decreased, but the sensitivity to naled significantly increased. These results demonstrate the variation arising from the genetic background and physiological transitions in honey bees as they age. This information can be used to determine risk assessment, as well as establishing baseline data for future comparisons to explain the variation in toxicity differences for honey bees reported in the literature.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus