Limits...
Knowledge and Perceptions of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) among Poultry Traders in Live Bird Markets in Bali and Lombok, Indonesia.

Kurscheid J, Millar J, Abdurrahman M, Ambarawati IG, Suadnya W, Yusuf RP, Fenwick S, Toribio JA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Education was strongly associated with better knowledge but did not influence positive reporting behavior.Greater efforts are needed to engage local government, market managers and traders in education and awareness programs, regulatory measures and incentive mechanisms.Understanding and evaluating the social responses to such an integrated approach could lead to more effective HPAI prevention and control.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) has been prevalent in Indonesia since 2003 causing major losses to poultry production and human deaths. Live bird markets are considered high risk areas due to the density of large numbers of mixed poultry species of unknown disease status. Understanding trader knowledge and perceptions of HPAI and biosecurity is critical to reducing transmission risk and controlling the disease. An interview-administered survey was conducted at 17 live bird markets on the islands of Bali and Lombok in 2008 and 2009. A total of 413 live poultry traders were interviewed. Respondents were mostly male (89%) with a mean age of 45 years (range: 19-81). The main source of AI information was TV (78%), although personal communication was also identified to be an important source, particularly among female traders (60%) and respondents from Bali (43%). More than half (58%) of live poultry traders interviewed knew that infected birds can transmit HPAI viruses but were generally unaware that viruses can be introduced to markets by fomites. Cleaning cages and disposing of sick and dead birds were recognized as the most important steps to prevent the spread of disease by respondents. Two thirds (n = 277) of respondents were unwilling to report sudden or suspicious bird deaths to authorities. Bali vendors perceive biosecurity to be of higher importance than Lombok vendors and are more willing to improve biosecurity within markets than traders in Lombok. Collectors and traders selling large numbers (>214) of poultry, or selling both chickens and ducks, have better knowledge of HPAI transmission and prevention than vendors or traders selling smaller quantities or only one species of poultry. Education was strongly associated with better knowledge but did not influence positive reporting behavior. Our study reveals that most live poultry traders have limited knowledge of HPAI transmission and prevention and are generally reluctant to report bird deaths. Greater efforts are needed to engage local government, market managers and traders in education and awareness programs, regulatory measures and incentive mechanisms. Understanding and evaluating the social responses to such an integrated approach could lead to more effective HPAI prevention and control.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Location of markets in Lombok.(Source: Charles Sturt University).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4592001&req=5

pone.0139917.g003: Location of markets in Lombok.(Source: Charles Sturt University).

Mentions: At the commencement of the study it was estimated that the number of active live bird markets in Bali was 109 and 36 in Lombok (Disease Investigation Centre, Bali). Due to limited resources a total of nine markets in Bali (Fig 2) and eight markets in Lombok (Fig 3) were selected as the focus of this study. Markets were selected based on the following criteria: 1) size of the market (Large: >25 traders and sold multiple live poultry species and other livestock; Medium: 10–25 traders and a mixture of commodities sold in addition to an assortment of live poultry but no other livestock and; Small: also a mixed commodities market but on a smaller scale with few live poultry species and less than 10 traders selling birds); 2) approximate volume of poultry (High: >2000; Moderate: 500–2000; Low: <500); 3) medium to high flow of road traffic (expected to have a larger customer base) surrounding market; 4) operating frequency (i.e. daily trading or 1–3 times per week); 5) poultry farm density (High: >10 poultry farms within a 1km radius of market; Moderate: >10 poultry farms within a 1–5km radius and Low: >10 poultry farms more than 5km radius around market); and 6) whether there had been any locally confirmed reports (i.e. confirmed by the Regional Office of Livestock and Animal Health) of HPAI H5N1 outbreaks in poultry in the previous 12 months. Selection criteria categories for each of the surveyed markets are provided in S1 Table and S2 Table for Bali and Lombok, respectively.


Knowledge and Perceptions of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) among Poultry Traders in Live Bird Markets in Bali and Lombok, Indonesia.

Kurscheid J, Millar J, Abdurrahman M, Ambarawati IG, Suadnya W, Yusuf RP, Fenwick S, Toribio JA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Location of markets in Lombok.(Source: Charles Sturt University).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4592001&req=5

pone.0139917.g003: Location of markets in Lombok.(Source: Charles Sturt University).
Mentions: At the commencement of the study it was estimated that the number of active live bird markets in Bali was 109 and 36 in Lombok (Disease Investigation Centre, Bali). Due to limited resources a total of nine markets in Bali (Fig 2) and eight markets in Lombok (Fig 3) were selected as the focus of this study. Markets were selected based on the following criteria: 1) size of the market (Large: >25 traders and sold multiple live poultry species and other livestock; Medium: 10–25 traders and a mixture of commodities sold in addition to an assortment of live poultry but no other livestock and; Small: also a mixed commodities market but on a smaller scale with few live poultry species and less than 10 traders selling birds); 2) approximate volume of poultry (High: >2000; Moderate: 500–2000; Low: <500); 3) medium to high flow of road traffic (expected to have a larger customer base) surrounding market; 4) operating frequency (i.e. daily trading or 1–3 times per week); 5) poultry farm density (High: >10 poultry farms within a 1km radius of market; Moderate: >10 poultry farms within a 1–5km radius and Low: >10 poultry farms more than 5km radius around market); and 6) whether there had been any locally confirmed reports (i.e. confirmed by the Regional Office of Livestock and Animal Health) of HPAI H5N1 outbreaks in poultry in the previous 12 months. Selection criteria categories for each of the surveyed markets are provided in S1 Table and S2 Table for Bali and Lombok, respectively.

Bottom Line: Education was strongly associated with better knowledge but did not influence positive reporting behavior.Greater efforts are needed to engage local government, market managers and traders in education and awareness programs, regulatory measures and incentive mechanisms.Understanding and evaluating the social responses to such an integrated approach could lead to more effective HPAI prevention and control.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) has been prevalent in Indonesia since 2003 causing major losses to poultry production and human deaths. Live bird markets are considered high risk areas due to the density of large numbers of mixed poultry species of unknown disease status. Understanding trader knowledge and perceptions of HPAI and biosecurity is critical to reducing transmission risk and controlling the disease. An interview-administered survey was conducted at 17 live bird markets on the islands of Bali and Lombok in 2008 and 2009. A total of 413 live poultry traders were interviewed. Respondents were mostly male (89%) with a mean age of 45 years (range: 19-81). The main source of AI information was TV (78%), although personal communication was also identified to be an important source, particularly among female traders (60%) and respondents from Bali (43%). More than half (58%) of live poultry traders interviewed knew that infected birds can transmit HPAI viruses but were generally unaware that viruses can be introduced to markets by fomites. Cleaning cages and disposing of sick and dead birds were recognized as the most important steps to prevent the spread of disease by respondents. Two thirds (n = 277) of respondents were unwilling to report sudden or suspicious bird deaths to authorities. Bali vendors perceive biosecurity to be of higher importance than Lombok vendors and are more willing to improve biosecurity within markets than traders in Lombok. Collectors and traders selling large numbers (>214) of poultry, or selling both chickens and ducks, have better knowledge of HPAI transmission and prevention than vendors or traders selling smaller quantities or only one species of poultry. Education was strongly associated with better knowledge but did not influence positive reporting behavior. Our study reveals that most live poultry traders have limited knowledge of HPAI transmission and prevention and are generally reluctant to report bird deaths. Greater efforts are needed to engage local government, market managers and traders in education and awareness programs, regulatory measures and incentive mechanisms. Understanding and evaluating the social responses to such an integrated approach could lead to more effective HPAI prevention and control.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus