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Knowledge and Perceptions of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) among Poultry Traders in Live Bird Markets in Bali and Lombok, Indonesia.

Kurscheid J, Millar J, Abdurrahman M, Ambarawati IG, Suadnya W, Yusuf RP, Fenwick S, Toribio JA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Education was strongly associated with better knowledge but did not influence positive reporting behavior.Greater efforts are needed to engage local government, market managers and traders in education and awareness programs, regulatory measures and incentive mechanisms.Understanding and evaluating the social responses to such an integrated approach could lead to more effective HPAI prevention and control.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) has been prevalent in Indonesia since 2003 causing major losses to poultry production and human deaths. Live bird markets are considered high risk areas due to the density of large numbers of mixed poultry species of unknown disease status. Understanding trader knowledge and perceptions of HPAI and biosecurity is critical to reducing transmission risk and controlling the disease. An interview-administered survey was conducted at 17 live bird markets on the islands of Bali and Lombok in 2008 and 2009. A total of 413 live poultry traders were interviewed. Respondents were mostly male (89%) with a mean age of 45 years (range: 19-81). The main source of AI information was TV (78%), although personal communication was also identified to be an important source, particularly among female traders (60%) and respondents from Bali (43%). More than half (58%) of live poultry traders interviewed knew that infected birds can transmit HPAI viruses but were generally unaware that viruses can be introduced to markets by fomites. Cleaning cages and disposing of sick and dead birds were recognized as the most important steps to prevent the spread of disease by respondents. Two thirds (n = 277) of respondents were unwilling to report sudden or suspicious bird deaths to authorities. Bali vendors perceive biosecurity to be of higher importance than Lombok vendors and are more willing to improve biosecurity within markets than traders in Lombok. Collectors and traders selling large numbers (>214) of poultry, or selling both chickens and ducks, have better knowledge of HPAI transmission and prevention than vendors or traders selling smaller quantities or only one species of poultry. Education was strongly associated with better knowledge but did not influence positive reporting behavior. Our study reveals that most live poultry traders have limited knowledge of HPAI transmission and prevention and are generally reluctant to report bird deaths. Greater efforts are needed to engage local government, market managers and traders in education and awareness programs, regulatory measures and incentive mechanisms. Understanding and evaluating the social responses to such an integrated approach could lead to more effective HPAI prevention and control.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Location of Bali and Lombok in Indonesia (Source: Charles Sturt University).
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pone.0139917.g001: Location of Bali and Lombok in Indonesia (Source: Charles Sturt University).

Mentions: The study was carried out on the islands of Bali and Lombok in Indonesia (Fig 1). These islands were selected based on their location, similar poultry industries and differing HPAI H5N1 outbreak status at the time of the study. The poultry industry on both islands consists of Sector 3 commercial farms (layers and broilers) and Sector 4 backyard farms (village chickens) [32], which are both at greater risk of HPAI infection than large-scale, industrialized poultry farms (i.e. Sector 1 or 2 farms) due to low levels of biosecurity [33]. Bali’s close proximity to Java, which is believed to be the epicenter of the HPAI H5N1 infection in Indonesia [10], places it in a particularly vulnerable position as poultry moves through illegal channels between these islands [16, 34]. At the commencement of this study Lombok had no laboratory confirmed human HPAI H5N1 fatalities and although sporadic poultry outbreaks had been reported and confirmed locally [32] it was not considered to be endemic on the island. In contrast human fatalities had occurred in Bali and the island province was considered to be HPAI H5N1 endemic [35]. Official reports of HPAI H5N1 poultry outbreaks in Lombok began to surface in late 2011 as FAO Participatory Disease Surveillance and Response (PDSR) data became available and the first human fatality was reported in March, 2012 [36].


Knowledge and Perceptions of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) among Poultry Traders in Live Bird Markets in Bali and Lombok, Indonesia.

Kurscheid J, Millar J, Abdurrahman M, Ambarawati IG, Suadnya W, Yusuf RP, Fenwick S, Toribio JA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Location of Bali and Lombok in Indonesia (Source: Charles Sturt University).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4592001&req=5

pone.0139917.g001: Location of Bali and Lombok in Indonesia (Source: Charles Sturt University).
Mentions: The study was carried out on the islands of Bali and Lombok in Indonesia (Fig 1). These islands were selected based on their location, similar poultry industries and differing HPAI H5N1 outbreak status at the time of the study. The poultry industry on both islands consists of Sector 3 commercial farms (layers and broilers) and Sector 4 backyard farms (village chickens) [32], which are both at greater risk of HPAI infection than large-scale, industrialized poultry farms (i.e. Sector 1 or 2 farms) due to low levels of biosecurity [33]. Bali’s close proximity to Java, which is believed to be the epicenter of the HPAI H5N1 infection in Indonesia [10], places it in a particularly vulnerable position as poultry moves through illegal channels between these islands [16, 34]. At the commencement of this study Lombok had no laboratory confirmed human HPAI H5N1 fatalities and although sporadic poultry outbreaks had been reported and confirmed locally [32] it was not considered to be endemic on the island. In contrast human fatalities had occurred in Bali and the island province was considered to be HPAI H5N1 endemic [35]. Official reports of HPAI H5N1 poultry outbreaks in Lombok began to surface in late 2011 as FAO Participatory Disease Surveillance and Response (PDSR) data became available and the first human fatality was reported in March, 2012 [36].

Bottom Line: Education was strongly associated with better knowledge but did not influence positive reporting behavior.Greater efforts are needed to engage local government, market managers and traders in education and awareness programs, regulatory measures and incentive mechanisms.Understanding and evaluating the social responses to such an integrated approach could lead to more effective HPAI prevention and control.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) has been prevalent in Indonesia since 2003 causing major losses to poultry production and human deaths. Live bird markets are considered high risk areas due to the density of large numbers of mixed poultry species of unknown disease status. Understanding trader knowledge and perceptions of HPAI and biosecurity is critical to reducing transmission risk and controlling the disease. An interview-administered survey was conducted at 17 live bird markets on the islands of Bali and Lombok in 2008 and 2009. A total of 413 live poultry traders were interviewed. Respondents were mostly male (89%) with a mean age of 45 years (range: 19-81). The main source of AI information was TV (78%), although personal communication was also identified to be an important source, particularly among female traders (60%) and respondents from Bali (43%). More than half (58%) of live poultry traders interviewed knew that infected birds can transmit HPAI viruses but were generally unaware that viruses can be introduced to markets by fomites. Cleaning cages and disposing of sick and dead birds were recognized as the most important steps to prevent the spread of disease by respondents. Two thirds (n = 277) of respondents were unwilling to report sudden or suspicious bird deaths to authorities. Bali vendors perceive biosecurity to be of higher importance than Lombok vendors and are more willing to improve biosecurity within markets than traders in Lombok. Collectors and traders selling large numbers (>214) of poultry, or selling both chickens and ducks, have better knowledge of HPAI transmission and prevention than vendors or traders selling smaller quantities or only one species of poultry. Education was strongly associated with better knowledge but did not influence positive reporting behavior. Our study reveals that most live poultry traders have limited knowledge of HPAI transmission and prevention and are generally reluctant to report bird deaths. Greater efforts are needed to engage local government, market managers and traders in education and awareness programs, regulatory measures and incentive mechanisms. Understanding and evaluating the social responses to such an integrated approach could lead to more effective HPAI prevention and control.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus