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Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Glucose Control and Lipid Levels in Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis.

Chen C, Yu X, Shao S - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: High ratio of EPA/DHA contributed to a greater decreasing tendency in plasma insulin, HbAc1, TC, TG, and BMI measures, although no statistical significance was identified (except TG).FPG levels were increased by 0.42 mmol/L in Asians.No evidence of publication bias was observed in this meta-analysis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Endocrinology, Tongji Hospital, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, PR China, 430030; The center for Biomedical Research, Tongji Hospital, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, PR China, 430030.

ABSTRACT

Background: Many studies assessed the impact of marine omega-3 fatty acids on glycemic homeostasis and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), but reported controversial results. Our goal was to systematically evaluate the effects of omega-3 on glucose control and lipid levels.

Methods: Medline, Pubmed, Cochrane Library, Embase, the National Research Register, and SIGLE were searched to identify eligible randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Extracted data from RCTs were analyzed using STATA 11.0 statistical software with fixed or random effects model. Effect sizes were presented as weighted mean differences (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Heterogeneity was assessed using the Chi-square test with significance level set at p < 0.1.

Results: 20 RCT trials were included into this meta-analysis. Among patients with omega-3 supplementation, triglyceride (TG) levels were significantly decreased by 0.24 mmol/L. No marked change in total cholesterol (TC), HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose, postprandial plasma glucose, BMI or body weight was observed. High ratio of EPA/DHA contributed to a greater decreasing tendency in plasma insulin, HbAc1, TC, TG, and BMI measures, although no statistical significance was identified (except TG). FPG levels were increased by 0.42 mmol/L in Asians. No evidence of publication bias was observed in this meta-analysis.

Conclusions: The ratio of EPA/DHA and early intervention with omega 3 fatty acids may affect their effects on glucose control and lipid levels, which may serve as a dietary reference for clinicians or nutritionists who manage diabetic patients.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effects of omega 3 fatty acids on BMI (A), weight (B), FPG (C), PPG (D), HbA1c (E), INS (F), TG (G), and TC (H).Note: BMI, body mass index; FPG, fast plasma glucose; PPG, postprandial glucose; HbA1c, glycosylated hemoglobin; INS, insulin; TG, Triglyceride; TC, total cholesterol; WMD, weighted mean difference.
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pone.0139565.g002: Effects of omega 3 fatty acids on BMI (A), weight (B), FPG (C), PPG (D), HbA1c (E), INS (F), TG (G), and TC (H).Note: BMI, body mass index; FPG, fast plasma glucose; PPG, postprandial glucose; HbA1c, glycosylated hemoglobin; INS, insulin; TG, Triglyceride; TC, total cholesterol; WMD, weighted mean difference.

Mentions: 14 of 20 RCT trials with 735 participants reported data on TG (Fig 2G). Omega 3 supplementation was related to a mean (pooled WMD) decrease of plasma TG concentration of 0.24 mmol/L (-0.33 to -0.15 mmol/L, 95% CI) compared to placebo (including vegetable oils). This decrease was remarkably significant (p<0.01) (Fig 2G). 17 of 20 RCT trials with 906 participants reported data on TC. But the outcome failed to show a significant decrease. Similarly, both glucose control outcomes (FPG, PPG, INS, and HbA1c) and body weight parameters (weight and BMI) with omega 3 intervention presented a non-significant difference when compared with control groups.


Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Glucose Control and Lipid Levels in Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis.

Chen C, Yu X, Shao S - PLoS ONE (2015)

Effects of omega 3 fatty acids on BMI (A), weight (B), FPG (C), PPG (D), HbA1c (E), INS (F), TG (G), and TC (H).Note: BMI, body mass index; FPG, fast plasma glucose; PPG, postprandial glucose; HbA1c, glycosylated hemoglobin; INS, insulin; TG, Triglyceride; TC, total cholesterol; WMD, weighted mean difference.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4591987&req=5

pone.0139565.g002: Effects of omega 3 fatty acids on BMI (A), weight (B), FPG (C), PPG (D), HbA1c (E), INS (F), TG (G), and TC (H).Note: BMI, body mass index; FPG, fast plasma glucose; PPG, postprandial glucose; HbA1c, glycosylated hemoglobin; INS, insulin; TG, Triglyceride; TC, total cholesterol; WMD, weighted mean difference.
Mentions: 14 of 20 RCT trials with 735 participants reported data on TG (Fig 2G). Omega 3 supplementation was related to a mean (pooled WMD) decrease of plasma TG concentration of 0.24 mmol/L (-0.33 to -0.15 mmol/L, 95% CI) compared to placebo (including vegetable oils). This decrease was remarkably significant (p<0.01) (Fig 2G). 17 of 20 RCT trials with 906 participants reported data on TC. But the outcome failed to show a significant decrease. Similarly, both glucose control outcomes (FPG, PPG, INS, and HbA1c) and body weight parameters (weight and BMI) with omega 3 intervention presented a non-significant difference when compared with control groups.

Bottom Line: High ratio of EPA/DHA contributed to a greater decreasing tendency in plasma insulin, HbAc1, TC, TG, and BMI measures, although no statistical significance was identified (except TG).FPG levels were increased by 0.42 mmol/L in Asians.No evidence of publication bias was observed in this meta-analysis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Endocrinology, Tongji Hospital, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, PR China, 430030; The center for Biomedical Research, Tongji Hospital, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, PR China, 430030.

ABSTRACT

Background: Many studies assessed the impact of marine omega-3 fatty acids on glycemic homeostasis and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), but reported controversial results. Our goal was to systematically evaluate the effects of omega-3 on glucose control and lipid levels.

Methods: Medline, Pubmed, Cochrane Library, Embase, the National Research Register, and SIGLE were searched to identify eligible randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Extracted data from RCTs were analyzed using STATA 11.0 statistical software with fixed or random effects model. Effect sizes were presented as weighted mean differences (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Heterogeneity was assessed using the Chi-square test with significance level set at p < 0.1.

Results: 20 RCT trials were included into this meta-analysis. Among patients with omega-3 supplementation, triglyceride (TG) levels were significantly decreased by 0.24 mmol/L. No marked change in total cholesterol (TC), HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose, postprandial plasma glucose, BMI or body weight was observed. High ratio of EPA/DHA contributed to a greater decreasing tendency in plasma insulin, HbAc1, TC, TG, and BMI measures, although no statistical significance was identified (except TG). FPG levels were increased by 0.42 mmol/L in Asians. No evidence of publication bias was observed in this meta-analysis.

Conclusions: The ratio of EPA/DHA and early intervention with omega 3 fatty acids may affect their effects on glucose control and lipid levels, which may serve as a dietary reference for clinicians or nutritionists who manage diabetic patients.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus