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Ligand uptake in Mycobacterium tuberculosis truncated hemoglobins is controlled by both internal tunnels and active site water molecules.

Boron I, Bustamante JP, Davidge KS, Singh S, Bowman LA, Tinajero-Trejo M, Carballal S, Radi R, Poole RK, Dikshit K, Estrin DA, Marti MA, Boechi L - F1000Res (2015)

Bottom Line: In order to investigate the differences between these proteins, we performed experimental kinetic measurements, (•)NO decomposition, as well as molecular dynamics simulations of the wild type Mt-trHbN and two mutants, VG8F and VG8W.These mutations introduce modifications in both tunnel topologies and affect the incoming ligand capacity to displace retained water molecules at the active site.We found that a single mutation allows Mt-trHbN to acquire ligand migration rates comparable to those observed for Mt-trHbO, confirming that ligand migration is regulated by the internal tunnel architecture as well as by water molecules stabilized in the active site.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Química Biológica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, C1428EGA, Argentina.

ABSTRACT
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of human tuberculosis, has two proteins belonging to the truncated hemoglobin (trHb) family. Mt-trHbN presents well-defined internal hydrophobic tunnels that allow O 2 and (•)NO to migrate easily from the solvent to the active site, whereas Mt-trHbO possesses tunnels that are partially blocked by a few bulky residues, particularly a tryptophan at position G8. Differential ligand migration rates allow Mt-trHbN to detoxify (•)NO, a crucial step for pathogen survival once under attack by the immune system, much more efficiently than Mt-trHbO. In order to investigate the differences between these proteins, we performed experimental kinetic measurements, (•)NO decomposition, as well as molecular dynamics simulations of the wild type Mt-trHbN and two mutants, VG8F and VG8W. These mutations introduce modifications in both tunnel topologies and affect the incoming ligand capacity to displace retained water molecules at the active site. We found that a single mutation allows Mt-trHbN to acquire ligand migration rates comparable to those observed for Mt-trHbO, confirming that ligand migration is regulated by the internal tunnel architecture as well as by water molecules stabilized in the active site.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic representation of the potential tunnels described in truncated hemoglobins.The three pathways, Long Tunnel (LT), E7 Gate (E7 gate) and Short Tunnel G8 (STG8) for ligand migration through the tertiary structure of a typical trHb are shown.
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f1: Schematic representation of the potential tunnels described in truncated hemoglobins.The three pathways, Long Tunnel (LT), E7 Gate (E7 gate) and Short Tunnel G8 (STG8) for ligand migration through the tertiary structure of a typical trHb are shown.

Mentions: Several studies have examined the role of internal tunnels in ligand migration in trHbs2,5–8. Three internal tunnels were found in the truncated hemoglobin family: a long tunnel (LT) topologically positioned between helices B and E, and two short tunnels, known as the E7 Gate (E7 gate) and the short tunnel G8 (STG8), which are roughly normal to the LT, as depicted inFigure 1. The E7 tunnel corresponds to the highly conserved E7 pathway widely studied in both myoglobin and hemoglobin9–11. The STG8 tunnel is analogous to that found in Mt-trHbN, next to the key residues VG8 and IH11. Previous results indicate that WG8, an absolutely conserved residue in groups II and III truncated hemoglobins, is involved in hindering ligand migration in Mt-trHbO by blocking both STG8 and LT (Figure 1)12–14. In addition, the presence of a smaller residue at the G8 position in the Mt-trHbO mutant (WG8F) was observed to increase the small ligand association constant, although the molecular details of this process were not investigated12–14. It has also been noted that internal water molecules can block the heme accessibility, thus delaying ligand binding15–17.


Ligand uptake in Mycobacterium tuberculosis truncated hemoglobins is controlled by both internal tunnels and active site water molecules.

Boron I, Bustamante JP, Davidge KS, Singh S, Bowman LA, Tinajero-Trejo M, Carballal S, Radi R, Poole RK, Dikshit K, Estrin DA, Marti MA, Boechi L - F1000Res (2015)

Schematic representation of the potential tunnels described in truncated hemoglobins.The three pathways, Long Tunnel (LT), E7 Gate (E7 gate) and Short Tunnel G8 (STG8) for ligand migration through the tertiary structure of a typical trHb are shown.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4591903&req=5

f1: Schematic representation of the potential tunnels described in truncated hemoglobins.The three pathways, Long Tunnel (LT), E7 Gate (E7 gate) and Short Tunnel G8 (STG8) for ligand migration through the tertiary structure of a typical trHb are shown.
Mentions: Several studies have examined the role of internal tunnels in ligand migration in trHbs2,5–8. Three internal tunnels were found in the truncated hemoglobin family: a long tunnel (LT) topologically positioned between helices B and E, and two short tunnels, known as the E7 Gate (E7 gate) and the short tunnel G8 (STG8), which are roughly normal to the LT, as depicted inFigure 1. The E7 tunnel corresponds to the highly conserved E7 pathway widely studied in both myoglobin and hemoglobin9–11. The STG8 tunnel is analogous to that found in Mt-trHbN, next to the key residues VG8 and IH11. Previous results indicate that WG8, an absolutely conserved residue in groups II and III truncated hemoglobins, is involved in hindering ligand migration in Mt-trHbO by blocking both STG8 and LT (Figure 1)12–14. In addition, the presence of a smaller residue at the G8 position in the Mt-trHbO mutant (WG8F) was observed to increase the small ligand association constant, although the molecular details of this process were not investigated12–14. It has also been noted that internal water molecules can block the heme accessibility, thus delaying ligand binding15–17.

Bottom Line: In order to investigate the differences between these proteins, we performed experimental kinetic measurements, (•)NO decomposition, as well as molecular dynamics simulations of the wild type Mt-trHbN and two mutants, VG8F and VG8W.These mutations introduce modifications in both tunnel topologies and affect the incoming ligand capacity to displace retained water molecules at the active site.We found that a single mutation allows Mt-trHbN to acquire ligand migration rates comparable to those observed for Mt-trHbO, confirming that ligand migration is regulated by the internal tunnel architecture as well as by water molecules stabilized in the active site.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Química Biológica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, C1428EGA, Argentina.

ABSTRACT
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of human tuberculosis, has two proteins belonging to the truncated hemoglobin (trHb) family. Mt-trHbN presents well-defined internal hydrophobic tunnels that allow O 2 and (•)NO to migrate easily from the solvent to the active site, whereas Mt-trHbO possesses tunnels that are partially blocked by a few bulky residues, particularly a tryptophan at position G8. Differential ligand migration rates allow Mt-trHbN to detoxify (•)NO, a crucial step for pathogen survival once under attack by the immune system, much more efficiently than Mt-trHbO. In order to investigate the differences between these proteins, we performed experimental kinetic measurements, (•)NO decomposition, as well as molecular dynamics simulations of the wild type Mt-trHbN and two mutants, VG8F and VG8W. These mutations introduce modifications in both tunnel topologies and affect the incoming ligand capacity to displace retained water molecules at the active site. We found that a single mutation allows Mt-trHbN to acquire ligand migration rates comparable to those observed for Mt-trHbO, confirming that ligand migration is regulated by the internal tunnel architecture as well as by water molecules stabilized in the active site.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus