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Male secondary sexual structures and the systematics of the Thereus oppia species group (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Eumaeini).

Robbins RK, Heredia MD, Busby RC - Zookeys (2015)

Bottom Line: Diagnostic traits, especially male secondary structures, within the Thereus oppia species group are illustrated.Distributional and biological information is summarized for each species.Three species have been reared, and the caterpillars eat Loranthaceae.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, PO Box 37012, NHB Stop 105, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20013-7012 USA.

ABSTRACT
The Thereus oppia species group includes species with and without a scent pad, which is a histologically and morphologically characterized male secondary sexual structure on the dorsal surface of the forewing. To assess the hypothesis that these structures are lost evolutionarily, but not regained (Dollo's Law), the taxonomy of this species group is revised. Thereus lomalarga sp. n., and Thereus brocki sp. n., are described. Diagnostic traits, especially male secondary structures, within the Thereus oppia species group are illustrated. Distributional and biological information is summarized for each species. Three species have been reared, and the caterpillars eat Loranthaceae. An inferred phylogeny is consistent with the hypothesis that scent pads in the Thereus oppia species group have been lost evolutionarily twice (in allopatry), and not re-gained.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Adults of the Thereusoppia species group. Male (left, dorsal wing surface on left) and female (right). 1Thereusorasus ♂ Panama, ♀ Mexico (holotype of Theclaechinita Schaus) 2Thereuslomalarga ♂ Colombia (holotype), ♀ Colombia (paratype) 3Thereusoppia ♂ Nicaragua, ♀ Nicaragua 4Thereusbrocki ♂ Ecuador (holotype), ♀ Ecuador (paratype). Scale bars: 1.0 cm.
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Figure 1: Adults of the Thereusoppia species group. Male (left, dorsal wing surface on left) and female (right). 1Thereusorasus ♂ Panama, ♀ Mexico (holotype of Theclaechinita Schaus) 2Thereuslomalarga ♂ Colombia (holotype), ♀ Colombia (paratype) 3Thereusoppia ♂ Nicaragua, ♀ Nicaragua 4Thereusbrocki ♂ Ecuador (holotype), ♀ Ecuador (paratype). Scale bars: 1.0 cm.

Mentions: (3) A scent patch on the ventral surface of the forewing located between the inner margin and the cubital vein (Figs 13–14). Again, superficially similar scent patches occur widely in the Eumaeini, but not in other Thereus or Rekoa. In Thereusoppia and Thereusbrocki, there are also erect piliform setae that attach to the inner margin (Fig. 14). The tips of these setae are evident in Thereusoppia (Fig. 3, underside of male) and can be seen on the left underside of the male in Thereusbrocki (Fig. 4). Superficially similar setae occur in the tribe Deudorigini (Eliot 1973: 403), where they are almost universal, but are unreported in other Eumaeini or in any other Theclinae, so far as we are aware. Further, the erect setae in Deudorigini are not associated with a scent patch on the ventral forewing, as in Thereusoppia (the light tan scales under the tips of the setae – Fig. 14).


Male secondary sexual structures and the systematics of the Thereus oppia species group (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Eumaeini).

Robbins RK, Heredia MD, Busby RC - Zookeys (2015)

Adults of the Thereusoppia species group. Male (left, dorsal wing surface on left) and female (right). 1Thereusorasus ♂ Panama, ♀ Mexico (holotype of Theclaechinita Schaus) 2Thereuslomalarga ♂ Colombia (holotype), ♀ Colombia (paratype) 3Thereusoppia ♂ Nicaragua, ♀ Nicaragua 4Thereusbrocki ♂ Ecuador (holotype), ♀ Ecuador (paratype). Scale bars: 1.0 cm.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons-attribution
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4591724&req=5

Figure 1: Adults of the Thereusoppia species group. Male (left, dorsal wing surface on left) and female (right). 1Thereusorasus ♂ Panama, ♀ Mexico (holotype of Theclaechinita Schaus) 2Thereuslomalarga ♂ Colombia (holotype), ♀ Colombia (paratype) 3Thereusoppia ♂ Nicaragua, ♀ Nicaragua 4Thereusbrocki ♂ Ecuador (holotype), ♀ Ecuador (paratype). Scale bars: 1.0 cm.
Mentions: (3) A scent patch on the ventral surface of the forewing located between the inner margin and the cubital vein (Figs 13–14). Again, superficially similar scent patches occur widely in the Eumaeini, but not in other Thereus or Rekoa. In Thereusoppia and Thereusbrocki, there are also erect piliform setae that attach to the inner margin (Fig. 14). The tips of these setae are evident in Thereusoppia (Fig. 3, underside of male) and can be seen on the left underside of the male in Thereusbrocki (Fig. 4). Superficially similar setae occur in the tribe Deudorigini (Eliot 1973: 403), where they are almost universal, but are unreported in other Eumaeini or in any other Theclinae, so far as we are aware. Further, the erect setae in Deudorigini are not associated with a scent patch on the ventral forewing, as in Thereusoppia (the light tan scales under the tips of the setae – Fig. 14).

Bottom Line: Diagnostic traits, especially male secondary structures, within the Thereus oppia species group are illustrated.Distributional and biological information is summarized for each species.Three species have been reared, and the caterpillars eat Loranthaceae.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, PO Box 37012, NHB Stop 105, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20013-7012 USA.

ABSTRACT
The Thereus oppia species group includes species with and without a scent pad, which is a histologically and morphologically characterized male secondary sexual structure on the dorsal surface of the forewing. To assess the hypothesis that these structures are lost evolutionarily, but not regained (Dollo's Law), the taxonomy of this species group is revised. Thereus lomalarga sp. n., and Thereus brocki sp. n., are described. Diagnostic traits, especially male secondary structures, within the Thereus oppia species group are illustrated. Distributional and biological information is summarized for each species. Three species have been reared, and the caterpillars eat Loranthaceae. An inferred phylogeny is consistent with the hypothesis that scent pads in the Thereus oppia species group have been lost evolutionarily twice (in allopatry), and not re-gained.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus