Limits...
Carotenoid metabolism and regulation in horticultural crops.

Yuan H, Zhang J, Nageswaran D, Li L - Hortic Res (2015)

Bottom Line: Carotenoids are a diverse group of pigments widely distributed in nature.The vivid yellow, orange, and red colors of many horticultural crops are attributed to the overaccumulation of carotenoids, which contribute to a critical agronomic trait for flowers and an important quality trait for fruits and vegetables.These investigations have advanced our fundamental understanding of carotenoid metabolism and regulation in plants.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Plant Breeding and Genetics Section, School of Integrative Plant Science, Cornell University , Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

ABSTRACT
Carotenoids are a diverse group of pigments widely distributed in nature. The vivid yellow, orange, and red colors of many horticultural crops are attributed to the overaccumulation of carotenoids, which contribute to a critical agronomic trait for flowers and an important quality trait for fruits and vegetables. Not only do carotenoids give horticultural crops their visual appeal, they also enhance nutritional value and health benefits for humans. As a result, carotenoid research in horticultural crops has grown exponentially over the last decade. These investigations have advanced our fundamental understanding of carotenoid metabolism and regulation in plants. In this review, we provide an overview of carotenoid biosynthesis, degradation, and accumulation in horticultural crops and highlight recent achievements in our understanding of carotenoid metabolic regulation in vegetables, fruits, and flowers.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

General carotenoid metabolic pathway in horticultural crops. PSY catalyzes the first committed condensation step from GGPP to produce the first C40 carotene, phytoene. Following several desaturation and isomerization steps, lycopene is produced. The next cyclization yields the α-carotene and β-carotene branches. A wide range of carotenoids are degraded by CCDs or NCEDs to produce apocarotenoids. IPP, isopentenyl diphosphate; DMAPP, dimethylallyl diphosphate; GGPP, geranylgeranyl diphosphate; IPI, isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase; GGPPS, GGPP synthase; PSY, phytoene synthase; PDS, phytoene desaturase; Z-ISO, ζ-carotene isomerase; ZDS, ζ-carotene desaturase; CRTISO, carotenoid isomerase; LCYE, lycopene ε-cyclase; LCYB, lycopene β-cyclase; CHYB, β-carotene hydroxylase; CYP97C, cytochrome P450-type monooxygenase 97C; ZEP, zeaxanthin epoxidase; VDE, violaxanthin de-epoxidase; CCS, capsanthin-capsorubin synthase; NXS, neoxanthin synthase; CCD, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase; NCED, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase. Metabolites are bolded and colored according to their compound colors, whereas black indicates no color. Enzymes and regulators are not bolded. Solid arrows indicate biosynthesis and dashed arrows indicate degradation PSY regulators are colored in blue. Dotted rectangles separate different groups of carotenoids.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4591682&req=5

fig1: General carotenoid metabolic pathway in horticultural crops. PSY catalyzes the first committed condensation step from GGPP to produce the first C40 carotene, phytoene. Following several desaturation and isomerization steps, lycopene is produced. The next cyclization yields the α-carotene and β-carotene branches. A wide range of carotenoids are degraded by CCDs or NCEDs to produce apocarotenoids. IPP, isopentenyl diphosphate; DMAPP, dimethylallyl diphosphate; GGPP, geranylgeranyl diphosphate; IPI, isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase; GGPPS, GGPP synthase; PSY, phytoene synthase; PDS, phytoene desaturase; Z-ISO, ζ-carotene isomerase; ZDS, ζ-carotene desaturase; CRTISO, carotenoid isomerase; LCYE, lycopene ε-cyclase; LCYB, lycopene β-cyclase; CHYB, β-carotene hydroxylase; CYP97C, cytochrome P450-type monooxygenase 97C; ZEP, zeaxanthin epoxidase; VDE, violaxanthin de-epoxidase; CCS, capsanthin-capsorubin synthase; NXS, neoxanthin synthase; CCD, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase; NCED, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase. Metabolites are bolded and colored according to their compound colors, whereas black indicates no color. Enzymes and regulators are not bolded. Solid arrows indicate biosynthesis and dashed arrows indicate degradation PSY regulators are colored in blue. Dotted rectangles separate different groups of carotenoids.

Mentions: Carotenoids are synthesized in all types of differentiated plastids but accumulate in high levels in the chloroplasts of green tissues and the chromoplasts of roots, fruits, and flower petals.1,8,11,12 The biochemical steps of carotenoid biosynthetic pathway have long been established by labeling and inhibition studies and mutant analysis. However, the identification of the genes encoding carotenogenic enzymes is a more recent development from the past two decades. All the genes and enzymes that catalyze the core reactions of carotenoid biosynthesis and degradation have been identified in plants (Figure 1). A large number of the pathway genes from various horticultural crops have been cloned and studied.13–17


Carotenoid metabolism and regulation in horticultural crops.

Yuan H, Zhang J, Nageswaran D, Li L - Hortic Res (2015)

General carotenoid metabolic pathway in horticultural crops. PSY catalyzes the first committed condensation step from GGPP to produce the first C40 carotene, phytoene. Following several desaturation and isomerization steps, lycopene is produced. The next cyclization yields the α-carotene and β-carotene branches. A wide range of carotenoids are degraded by CCDs or NCEDs to produce apocarotenoids. IPP, isopentenyl diphosphate; DMAPP, dimethylallyl diphosphate; GGPP, geranylgeranyl diphosphate; IPI, isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase; GGPPS, GGPP synthase; PSY, phytoene synthase; PDS, phytoene desaturase; Z-ISO, ζ-carotene isomerase; ZDS, ζ-carotene desaturase; CRTISO, carotenoid isomerase; LCYE, lycopene ε-cyclase; LCYB, lycopene β-cyclase; CHYB, β-carotene hydroxylase; CYP97C, cytochrome P450-type monooxygenase 97C; ZEP, zeaxanthin epoxidase; VDE, violaxanthin de-epoxidase; CCS, capsanthin-capsorubin synthase; NXS, neoxanthin synthase; CCD, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase; NCED, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase. Metabolites are bolded and colored according to their compound colors, whereas black indicates no color. Enzymes and regulators are not bolded. Solid arrows indicate biosynthesis and dashed arrows indicate degradation PSY regulators are colored in blue. Dotted rectangles separate different groups of carotenoids.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4591682&req=5

fig1: General carotenoid metabolic pathway in horticultural crops. PSY catalyzes the first committed condensation step from GGPP to produce the first C40 carotene, phytoene. Following several desaturation and isomerization steps, lycopene is produced. The next cyclization yields the α-carotene and β-carotene branches. A wide range of carotenoids are degraded by CCDs or NCEDs to produce apocarotenoids. IPP, isopentenyl diphosphate; DMAPP, dimethylallyl diphosphate; GGPP, geranylgeranyl diphosphate; IPI, isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase; GGPPS, GGPP synthase; PSY, phytoene synthase; PDS, phytoene desaturase; Z-ISO, ζ-carotene isomerase; ZDS, ζ-carotene desaturase; CRTISO, carotenoid isomerase; LCYE, lycopene ε-cyclase; LCYB, lycopene β-cyclase; CHYB, β-carotene hydroxylase; CYP97C, cytochrome P450-type monooxygenase 97C; ZEP, zeaxanthin epoxidase; VDE, violaxanthin de-epoxidase; CCS, capsanthin-capsorubin synthase; NXS, neoxanthin synthase; CCD, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase; NCED, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase. Metabolites are bolded and colored according to their compound colors, whereas black indicates no color. Enzymes and regulators are not bolded. Solid arrows indicate biosynthesis and dashed arrows indicate degradation PSY regulators are colored in blue. Dotted rectangles separate different groups of carotenoids.
Mentions: Carotenoids are synthesized in all types of differentiated plastids but accumulate in high levels in the chloroplasts of green tissues and the chromoplasts of roots, fruits, and flower petals.1,8,11,12 The biochemical steps of carotenoid biosynthetic pathway have long been established by labeling and inhibition studies and mutant analysis. However, the identification of the genes encoding carotenogenic enzymes is a more recent development from the past two decades. All the genes and enzymes that catalyze the core reactions of carotenoid biosynthesis and degradation have been identified in plants (Figure 1). A large number of the pathway genes from various horticultural crops have been cloned and studied.13–17

Bottom Line: Carotenoids are a diverse group of pigments widely distributed in nature.The vivid yellow, orange, and red colors of many horticultural crops are attributed to the overaccumulation of carotenoids, which contribute to a critical agronomic trait for flowers and an important quality trait for fruits and vegetables.These investigations have advanced our fundamental understanding of carotenoid metabolism and regulation in plants.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Plant Breeding and Genetics Section, School of Integrative Plant Science, Cornell University , Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

ABSTRACT
Carotenoids are a diverse group of pigments widely distributed in nature. The vivid yellow, orange, and red colors of many horticultural crops are attributed to the overaccumulation of carotenoids, which contribute to a critical agronomic trait for flowers and an important quality trait for fruits and vegetables. Not only do carotenoids give horticultural crops their visual appeal, they also enhance nutritional value and health benefits for humans. As a result, carotenoid research in horticultural crops has grown exponentially over the last decade. These investigations have advanced our fundamental understanding of carotenoid metabolism and regulation in plants. In this review, we provide an overview of carotenoid biosynthesis, degradation, and accumulation in horticultural crops and highlight recent achievements in our understanding of carotenoid metabolic regulation in vegetables, fruits, and flowers.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus