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Diversity in global gene expression and morphology across a watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) germplasm collection: first steps to breeding.

Payne AC, Clarkson GJ, Rothwell S, Taylor G - Hortic Res (2015)

Bottom Line: This variation was used to identify three extreme contrasting accessions for further analysis.A set of transcripts significantly differentially expressed between these three accessions, were identified, including transcripts involved in the regulation of growth and development and those involved in secondary metabolism.In particular, when differential gene expression was compared between C and dwarfAO, the dwarfAO was characterised by increased expression of genes encoding glucosinolates, which are known precursors of phenethyl isothiocyanate, linked to the anti-carcinogenic effects well-documented in watercress.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Biological Sciences, Institute for Life Sciences, University of Southampton , Southampton, SO17 1BJ, UK.

ABSTRACT
Watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) is a nutrient intense, leafy crop that is consumed raw or in soups across the globe, but for which, currently no genomic resources or breeding programme exists. Promising morphological, biochemical and functional genomic variation was identified for the first time in a newly established watercress germplasm collection, consisting of 48 watercress accessions sourced from contrasting global locations. Stem length, stem diameter and anti-oxidant (AO) potential varied across the accessions. This variation was used to identify three extreme contrasting accessions for further analysis. Variation in global gene expression was investigated using an Affymetrix Arabidopsis ATH1 microarray gene chip, using the commercial control (C), an accession selected for dwarf phenotype with a high AO potential (dwarfAO, called 'Boldrewood') and one with high AO potential alone. A set of transcripts significantly differentially expressed between these three accessions, were identified, including transcripts involved in the regulation of growth and development and those involved in secondary metabolism. In particular, when differential gene expression was compared between C and dwarfAO, the dwarfAO was characterised by increased expression of genes encoding glucosinolates, which are known precursors of phenethyl isothiocyanate, linked to the anti-carcinogenic effects well-documented in watercress. This study provides the first analysis of natural variation across the watercress genome and has identified important underpinning information for future breeding for enhanced anti-carcinogenic properties and morphology traits in this nutrient-intense crop.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(a) anti‐oxidant potential (b) mean stem length (c) mean stem diameter (d) leaf number index of the watercress accessions held within the germplasm collection. L1‐5 represent watercress accessions which had a low anti‐oxidant potential (<600 mmol Fe2+ per gram FW) whilst H1‐7 represent accessions with a high anti‐oxidant potential (>600 mmol Fe2+ per gram FW). Asterisks identify significance from two way ANOVA analysis *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001. CE refers to the growth of the plants in a controlled environment in which environmental conditions are set to ensure minimum fluctuations and therefore any morphological or biochemical differences can be attributed to genes and not the environment.
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fig1: (a) anti‐oxidant potential (b) mean stem length (c) mean stem diameter (d) leaf number index of the watercress accessions held within the germplasm collection. L1‐5 represent watercress accessions which had a low anti‐oxidant potential (<600 mmol Fe2+ per gram FW) whilst H1‐7 represent accessions with a high anti‐oxidant potential (>600 mmol Fe2+ per gram FW). Asterisks identify significance from two way ANOVA analysis *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001. CE refers to the growth of the plants in a controlled environment in which environmental conditions are set to ensure minimum fluctuations and therefore any morphological or biochemical differences can be attributed to genes and not the environment.

Mentions: AO potential from FRAP differed significantly across the watercress accessions when grown in a CE and also when grown in the field (Figure 1a). There was a dramatic increase in AO potential for field grown as compared to CE-grown watercress where the control accession increased from 130 mmol Fe2+ equivalent per gram fresh weight in a CE to 529 mmol Fe2+ equivalent per gram fresh weight in the field. There was a significant difference between the watercress accessions, environment and an interaction between accession and environment (Table 1). The different watercress accessions did not rank the same in the CE and field and Spearman’s rho revealed a non-significant relationship, rs(34) = 0.019, p = 0.915.


Diversity in global gene expression and morphology across a watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) germplasm collection: first steps to breeding.

Payne AC, Clarkson GJ, Rothwell S, Taylor G - Hortic Res (2015)

(a) anti‐oxidant potential (b) mean stem length (c) mean stem diameter (d) leaf number index of the watercress accessions held within the germplasm collection. L1‐5 represent watercress accessions which had a low anti‐oxidant potential (<600 mmol Fe2+ per gram FW) whilst H1‐7 represent accessions with a high anti‐oxidant potential (>600 mmol Fe2+ per gram FW). Asterisks identify significance from two way ANOVA analysis *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001. CE refers to the growth of the plants in a controlled environment in which environmental conditions are set to ensure minimum fluctuations and therefore any morphological or biochemical differences can be attributed to genes and not the environment.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4591680&req=5

fig1: (a) anti‐oxidant potential (b) mean stem length (c) mean stem diameter (d) leaf number index of the watercress accessions held within the germplasm collection. L1‐5 represent watercress accessions which had a low anti‐oxidant potential (<600 mmol Fe2+ per gram FW) whilst H1‐7 represent accessions with a high anti‐oxidant potential (>600 mmol Fe2+ per gram FW). Asterisks identify significance from two way ANOVA analysis *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001. CE refers to the growth of the plants in a controlled environment in which environmental conditions are set to ensure minimum fluctuations and therefore any morphological or biochemical differences can be attributed to genes and not the environment.
Mentions: AO potential from FRAP differed significantly across the watercress accessions when grown in a CE and also when grown in the field (Figure 1a). There was a dramatic increase in AO potential for field grown as compared to CE-grown watercress where the control accession increased from 130 mmol Fe2+ equivalent per gram fresh weight in a CE to 529 mmol Fe2+ equivalent per gram fresh weight in the field. There was a significant difference between the watercress accessions, environment and an interaction between accession and environment (Table 1). The different watercress accessions did not rank the same in the CE and field and Spearman’s rho revealed a non-significant relationship, rs(34) = 0.019, p = 0.915.

Bottom Line: This variation was used to identify three extreme contrasting accessions for further analysis.A set of transcripts significantly differentially expressed between these three accessions, were identified, including transcripts involved in the regulation of growth and development and those involved in secondary metabolism.In particular, when differential gene expression was compared between C and dwarfAO, the dwarfAO was characterised by increased expression of genes encoding glucosinolates, which are known precursors of phenethyl isothiocyanate, linked to the anti-carcinogenic effects well-documented in watercress.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Biological Sciences, Institute for Life Sciences, University of Southampton , Southampton, SO17 1BJ, UK.

ABSTRACT
Watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) is a nutrient intense, leafy crop that is consumed raw or in soups across the globe, but for which, currently no genomic resources or breeding programme exists. Promising morphological, biochemical and functional genomic variation was identified for the first time in a newly established watercress germplasm collection, consisting of 48 watercress accessions sourced from contrasting global locations. Stem length, stem diameter and anti-oxidant (AO) potential varied across the accessions. This variation was used to identify three extreme contrasting accessions for further analysis. Variation in global gene expression was investigated using an Affymetrix Arabidopsis ATH1 microarray gene chip, using the commercial control (C), an accession selected for dwarf phenotype with a high AO potential (dwarfAO, called 'Boldrewood') and one with high AO potential alone. A set of transcripts significantly differentially expressed between these three accessions, were identified, including transcripts involved in the regulation of growth and development and those involved in secondary metabolism. In particular, when differential gene expression was compared between C and dwarfAO, the dwarfAO was characterised by increased expression of genes encoding glucosinolates, which are known precursors of phenethyl isothiocyanate, linked to the anti-carcinogenic effects well-documented in watercress. This study provides the first analysis of natural variation across the watercress genome and has identified important underpinning information for future breeding for enhanced anti-carcinogenic properties and morphology traits in this nutrient-intense crop.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus