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Sequential light programs shape kale (Brassica napus) sprout appearance and alter metabolic and nutrient content.

Carvalho SD, Folta KM - Hortic Res (2014)

Bottom Line: Different light wavelengths have specific effects on plant growth and development.Sequential treatments of darkness, blue light, red light and far-red light were applied throughout sprout development to alter final product quality.These results indicate that sequential treatment with narrow-bandwidth light may be used to affect key economically important traits in high-value crops.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Horticultural Sciences Department, University of Florida , Gainesville, FL, USA ; Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, University of Florida , Gainesville, FL, USA.

ABSTRACT
Different light wavelengths have specific effects on plant growth and development. Narrow-bandwidth light-emitting diode (LED) lighting may be used to directionally manipulate size, color and metabolites in high-value fruits and vegetables. In this report, Red Russian kale (Brassica napus) seedlings were grown under specific light conditions and analyzed for photomorphogenic responses, pigment accumulation and nutraceutical content. The results showed that this genotype responds predictably to darkness, blue and red light, with suppression of hypocotyl elongation, development of pigments and changes in specific metabolites. However, these seedlings were relatively hypersensitive to far-red light, leading to uncharacteristically short hypocotyls and high pigment accumulation, even after growth under very low fluence rates (<1 μmol m(-2) s(-1)). General antioxidant levels and aliphatic glucosinolates are elevated by far-red light treatments. Sequential treatments of darkness, blue light, red light and far-red light were applied throughout sprout development to alter final product quality. These results indicate that sequential treatment with narrow-bandwidth light may be used to affect key economically important traits in high-value crops.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of simultaneous red and far-red light irradiance on the growth of Red Russian kale seedlings. (a) Hypocotyl length (representative of three independent experiments; means±s.e., n=18); (b) anthocyanin content (average of three independent experiments, means±s.e.); (c) chlorophyll levels (average of three independent experiments, means±s.e.); (d) a representative picture of 4-day-old seedlings grown in darkness for 1 day and then 3 days in the indicated red and far-red light fluence rates. s.e., standard error.
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fig5: Effect of simultaneous red and far-red light irradiance on the growth of Red Russian kale seedlings. (a) Hypocotyl length (representative of three independent experiments; means±s.e., n=18); (b) anthocyanin content (average of three independent experiments, means±s.e.); (c) chlorophyll levels (average of three independent experiments, means±s.e.); (d) a representative picture of 4-day-old seedlings grown in darkness for 1 day and then 3 days in the indicated red and far-red light fluence rates. s.e., standard error.

Mentions: The modulation of plant growth and development by light is dictated by phytochromes, plant pigments that are generally activated by red light and inactivated by far-red light (reviewed in Chen and Chory, 2011). Under the presence of both wavelengths, a dynamic equilibrium is established, allowing plants to rapidly optimize their response to that particular environment. Figures 2–4 revealed that far-red and red light exert almost antagonistic effects on photomorphogenic development. Seedlings under far-red light exhibit a stronger suppression of hypocotyl elongation, accompanied by greater accumulation of anthocyanins, as opposed to longer and greener hypocotyls under red light. To further explore the interaction between these two wavelengths on kale growth, seedlings were grown for 4 days under different combinations of simultaneously applied red and far-red light (Figure 5). Consistent with what was observed in Figure 2a–2d, irradiance with a relatively small amount of far-red light, is sufficient to repress hypocotyl elongation (Figure 5a). In addition, the accumulation of anthocyanins is also dramatically higher with decreasing levels of the red to far-light ratio (Figure 5b). Conspicuous effects are seen in Figure 5d, with seedlings showing substantial purple pigment accumulation with less green at lower-red/far-red ratios. The presence of far-red light did not revert the induction of chlorophyll accumulation (Figure 5c) except when far-red light alone was applied. Here chlorophyll levels decreased to almost half their levels when red light was present (Figure 5c).


Sequential light programs shape kale (Brassica napus) sprout appearance and alter metabolic and nutrient content.

Carvalho SD, Folta KM - Hortic Res (2014)

Effect of simultaneous red and far-red light irradiance on the growth of Red Russian kale seedlings. (a) Hypocotyl length (representative of three independent experiments; means±s.e., n=18); (b) anthocyanin content (average of three independent experiments, means±s.e.); (c) chlorophyll levels (average of three independent experiments, means±s.e.); (d) a representative picture of 4-day-old seedlings grown in darkness for 1 day and then 3 days in the indicated red and far-red light fluence rates. s.e., standard error.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4591675&req=5

fig5: Effect of simultaneous red and far-red light irradiance on the growth of Red Russian kale seedlings. (a) Hypocotyl length (representative of three independent experiments; means±s.e., n=18); (b) anthocyanin content (average of three independent experiments, means±s.e.); (c) chlorophyll levels (average of three independent experiments, means±s.e.); (d) a representative picture of 4-day-old seedlings grown in darkness for 1 day and then 3 days in the indicated red and far-red light fluence rates. s.e., standard error.
Mentions: The modulation of plant growth and development by light is dictated by phytochromes, plant pigments that are generally activated by red light and inactivated by far-red light (reviewed in Chen and Chory, 2011). Under the presence of both wavelengths, a dynamic equilibrium is established, allowing plants to rapidly optimize their response to that particular environment. Figures 2–4 revealed that far-red and red light exert almost antagonistic effects on photomorphogenic development. Seedlings under far-red light exhibit a stronger suppression of hypocotyl elongation, accompanied by greater accumulation of anthocyanins, as opposed to longer and greener hypocotyls under red light. To further explore the interaction between these two wavelengths on kale growth, seedlings were grown for 4 days under different combinations of simultaneously applied red and far-red light (Figure 5). Consistent with what was observed in Figure 2a–2d, irradiance with a relatively small amount of far-red light, is sufficient to repress hypocotyl elongation (Figure 5a). In addition, the accumulation of anthocyanins is also dramatically higher with decreasing levels of the red to far-light ratio (Figure 5b). Conspicuous effects are seen in Figure 5d, with seedlings showing substantial purple pigment accumulation with less green at lower-red/far-red ratios. The presence of far-red light did not revert the induction of chlorophyll accumulation (Figure 5c) except when far-red light alone was applied. Here chlorophyll levels decreased to almost half their levels when red light was present (Figure 5c).

Bottom Line: Different light wavelengths have specific effects on plant growth and development.Sequential treatments of darkness, blue light, red light and far-red light were applied throughout sprout development to alter final product quality.These results indicate that sequential treatment with narrow-bandwidth light may be used to affect key economically important traits in high-value crops.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Horticultural Sciences Department, University of Florida , Gainesville, FL, USA ; Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, University of Florida , Gainesville, FL, USA.

ABSTRACT
Different light wavelengths have specific effects on plant growth and development. Narrow-bandwidth light-emitting diode (LED) lighting may be used to directionally manipulate size, color and metabolites in high-value fruits and vegetables. In this report, Red Russian kale (Brassica napus) seedlings were grown under specific light conditions and analyzed for photomorphogenic responses, pigment accumulation and nutraceutical content. The results showed that this genotype responds predictably to darkness, blue and red light, with suppression of hypocotyl elongation, development of pigments and changes in specific metabolites. However, these seedlings were relatively hypersensitive to far-red light, leading to uncharacteristically short hypocotyls and high pigment accumulation, even after growth under very low fluence rates (<1 μmol m(-2) s(-1)). General antioxidant levels and aliphatic glucosinolates are elevated by far-red light treatments. Sequential treatments of darkness, blue light, red light and far-red light were applied throughout sprout development to alter final product quality. These results indicate that sequential treatment with narrow-bandwidth light may be used to affect key economically important traits in high-value crops.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus