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Dynamic changes in proteins during apple (Malus x domestica) fruit ripening and storage.

Shi Y, Jiang L, Zhang L, Kang R, Yu Z - Hortic Res (2014)

Bottom Line: Proteins involved in several multiple metabolic pathways, including glycolysis, pentose-phosphate pathway, anti-oxidative systems, photosynthesis and cell wall synthesis, were downregulated, especially during the climacteric burst in respiration and during the senescent stages of fruit development.Proteins classified as allergens or involved in cell wall degradation were upregulated during the ripening process.The identification of differentially expressed proteins associated with physiological processes identified in the current study provides a baseline of information for understanding the metabolic processes and regulatory mechanisms that occur in climacteric apple fruit during ripening and senescence.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University , Nanjing 210095, China.

ABSTRACT
A proteomic study, using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight, was conducted in apple fruit (cv. 'Golden Delicious') starting at 10 days prior to harvest through 50 days in storage. Total protein was extracted using a phenol/sodium dodecyl sulfate protocol. More than 400 protein spots were detected in each gel and 55 differentially expressed proteins (p<0.05) were subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight analysis. Fifty-three of these proteins were finally identified using an apple expressed sequence tag database downloaded from Genome Database for Rosaceae and placed into six categories. The categories and the percentage of proteins placed in each category were stress response and defense (49.0%), energy and metabolism (34.0%), fruit ripening and senescence (5.6%), signal transduction (3.8%), cell structure (3.8%) and protein synthesis (3.8%). Proteins involved in several multiple metabolic pathways, including glycolysis, pentose-phosphate pathway, anti-oxidative systems, photosynthesis and cell wall synthesis, were downregulated, especially during the climacteric burst in respiration and during the senescent stages of fruit development. Proteins classified as allergens or involved in cell wall degradation were upregulated during the ripening process. Some protein spots exhibited a mixed pattern (increasing to maximal abundance followed by a decrease), such as 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase, L-ascorbate peroxidase and abscisic acid response proteins. The identification of differentially expressed proteins associated with physiological processes identified in the current study provides a baseline of information for understanding the metabolic processes and regulatory mechanisms that occur in climacteric apple fruit during ripening and senescence.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Classification of differentially expressed proteins identified in apple fruits at different ripening stages into functional categories. The classification is based on protein descriptions in the GDR, protein annotations in MIPS Functional Catalogue Database and published literature. MIPS, Munich Information Center for Protein Sequences.
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fig3: Classification of differentially expressed proteins identified in apple fruits at different ripening stages into functional categories. The classification is based on protein descriptions in the GDR, protein annotations in MIPS Functional Catalogue Database and published literature. MIPS, Munich Information Center for Protein Sequences.

Mentions: More than 400 protein spots, ranging in molecular mass from 14–90 kDa and pH 4–7, were detected in ‘Golden Delicious’ apple fruit during ripening and storage (Figure 1). A total of 55 spots were differentially abundant (>two-fold) compared to the H0 stage in at least one sampling point. Among them, 53 spots were confidently identified using the GDR database, as was their subcellular location (Table 1). The 53 differentially expressed proteins are illustrated in Figure 1 and changes in protein levels, for some of the proteins, over the time course of the study (H-10–H50) are illustrated in Figure 2. Changes in the level of expression for all of the differentially expressed proteins over the time course used in this study are presented in Table 2b. The differentially expressed proteins were assigned into one of six categories based on their description in GDR, their annotation in Munich Information Center for Protein Sequences Functional Catalogue Database and published literature. The category containing most of the differentially expressed proteins (49.0%) was defined as ‘stress response and defense’. The category with the second largest percentage of proteins (34.0%) was one containing proteins involved in energy and metabolism, including carbohydrate, amino acid, nucleotide, thiamine, lipid and secondary metabolism. Three proteins (5.6%) were associated with fruit ripening and senescence; two proteins (3.8%) were associated with signal transduction; two (3.8%) with cell structure, and the remaining two (3.8%) were associated with protein synthesis. These results are illustrated in Figure 3.


Dynamic changes in proteins during apple (Malus x domestica) fruit ripening and storage.

Shi Y, Jiang L, Zhang L, Kang R, Yu Z - Hortic Res (2014)

Classification of differentially expressed proteins identified in apple fruits at different ripening stages into functional categories. The classification is based on protein descriptions in the GDR, protein annotations in MIPS Functional Catalogue Database and published literature. MIPS, Munich Information Center for Protein Sequences.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4591674&req=5

fig3: Classification of differentially expressed proteins identified in apple fruits at different ripening stages into functional categories. The classification is based on protein descriptions in the GDR, protein annotations in MIPS Functional Catalogue Database and published literature. MIPS, Munich Information Center for Protein Sequences.
Mentions: More than 400 protein spots, ranging in molecular mass from 14–90 kDa and pH 4–7, were detected in ‘Golden Delicious’ apple fruit during ripening and storage (Figure 1). A total of 55 spots were differentially abundant (>two-fold) compared to the H0 stage in at least one sampling point. Among them, 53 spots were confidently identified using the GDR database, as was their subcellular location (Table 1). The 53 differentially expressed proteins are illustrated in Figure 1 and changes in protein levels, for some of the proteins, over the time course of the study (H-10–H50) are illustrated in Figure 2. Changes in the level of expression for all of the differentially expressed proteins over the time course used in this study are presented in Table 2b. The differentially expressed proteins were assigned into one of six categories based on their description in GDR, their annotation in Munich Information Center for Protein Sequences Functional Catalogue Database and published literature. The category containing most of the differentially expressed proteins (49.0%) was defined as ‘stress response and defense’. The category with the second largest percentage of proteins (34.0%) was one containing proteins involved in energy and metabolism, including carbohydrate, amino acid, nucleotide, thiamine, lipid and secondary metabolism. Three proteins (5.6%) were associated with fruit ripening and senescence; two proteins (3.8%) were associated with signal transduction; two (3.8%) with cell structure, and the remaining two (3.8%) were associated with protein synthesis. These results are illustrated in Figure 3.

Bottom Line: Proteins involved in several multiple metabolic pathways, including glycolysis, pentose-phosphate pathway, anti-oxidative systems, photosynthesis and cell wall synthesis, were downregulated, especially during the climacteric burst in respiration and during the senescent stages of fruit development.Proteins classified as allergens or involved in cell wall degradation were upregulated during the ripening process.The identification of differentially expressed proteins associated with physiological processes identified in the current study provides a baseline of information for understanding the metabolic processes and regulatory mechanisms that occur in climacteric apple fruit during ripening and senescence.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University , Nanjing 210095, China.

ABSTRACT
A proteomic study, using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight, was conducted in apple fruit (cv. 'Golden Delicious') starting at 10 days prior to harvest through 50 days in storage. Total protein was extracted using a phenol/sodium dodecyl sulfate protocol. More than 400 protein spots were detected in each gel and 55 differentially expressed proteins (p<0.05) were subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight analysis. Fifty-three of these proteins were finally identified using an apple expressed sequence tag database downloaded from Genome Database for Rosaceae and placed into six categories. The categories and the percentage of proteins placed in each category were stress response and defense (49.0%), energy and metabolism (34.0%), fruit ripening and senescence (5.6%), signal transduction (3.8%), cell structure (3.8%) and protein synthesis (3.8%). Proteins involved in several multiple metabolic pathways, including glycolysis, pentose-phosphate pathway, anti-oxidative systems, photosynthesis and cell wall synthesis, were downregulated, especially during the climacteric burst in respiration and during the senescent stages of fruit development. Proteins classified as allergens or involved in cell wall degradation were upregulated during the ripening process. Some protein spots exhibited a mixed pattern (increasing to maximal abundance followed by a decrease), such as 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase, L-ascorbate peroxidase and abscisic acid response proteins. The identification of differentially expressed proteins associated with physiological processes identified in the current study provides a baseline of information for understanding the metabolic processes and regulatory mechanisms that occur in climacteric apple fruit during ripening and senescence.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus